Proceedings of the

NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM

ON MACHINE TRANSLATION

Held at the University of California, Los Angeles

February 2-5, 1960

edited by

H.P.EDMUNDSON

 

Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1961

 

[Articles reproduced with permission of the publisher]

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
FOREWORD.............................................................................. ..ii

INTRODUCTION TO SYMPOSIUM
WELCOME

George W. Brown........................................................... ..x

ORIENTATION

H. P. Edmundson........................................................... ..xi

SESSION 1: CURRENT RESEARCH

SOVIET RESEARCH IN MACHINE TRANSLATION

Kenneth Harper................................................................ 2

LINGUISTIC RESEARCH AT THE RAND CORPORATION

David G. Hays.................................................................. .13

RESEARCH IN MACHINE TRANSLATION AT RAMO-WOOLDRIDGE

Jules Mersel...................................................................... .26

THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS' METHOD OF SYNTACTIC INTEGRATION

Ida Rhodes........................................................................ .39

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION............................................... .45

SUMMATION BY CHAIRMAN

Leon Dostert...................................................................... .49

SESSION 2: CURRENT RESEARCH

FUNCTIONS REQUIRED OF A TRANSLATION SYSTEM

Gilbert King..................................................................... .. 53

CURRENT RESEARCH AT GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY

Michael Zarechnak and A. F. R. Brown............................. .63

REPORT ON SOME PRINCIPLES OF THE UNIFIED TRANSFER SYSTEM

Ariadne W. Lukjanow....................................................... 88

REPORT ON THE TEXAS PROJECT

Stanley N. Werbow.......................................................... ..121

MT AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Victor H. Yngve.............................................................. 126

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION ........................................... .133

SUMMATION BY CHAIRMAN

E.W. Cannon................................................................ ..136

SESSION 3: CURRENT RESEARCH

MT RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

Sydney M. Lamb.......................................................... . 140

CURRENT RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

Erwin Reifler................................................................... ..155

RESEARCH IN MACHINE TRANSLATION

Harry H. Josselson....................................................... . 160

CURRENT RESEARCH ON AUTOMATIC TRANSLATION AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY AND PREDICTIVE SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS

Anthony G. Oettinger and Murray E. Sherry.................. 173

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION............................................ 183

SUMMATION BY CHAIRMAN

Thomas A. Sebeok.......................................................... ..193

SESSION 4: METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION

H.P. Edmundson............................................................. .197

DISCUSSANTS:

A. F. R. Brown Anthony G. Oettinger

Vincent Giuliano Erwin Reifler

David G. Hays Ida Rhodes

Harry H. Josselson Don R. Swanson

Gilbert King Stanley N. Werbow

Sydney M. Lamb Victor H. Yngve

Ariadne Lukjanow Michael Zarechnak

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION............................................ 219

SUMMATION BY CHAIRMAN

Robert M. Hayes.............................................................. ..225

SESSION 5: GRAMMATICAL STUDIES

AUTOMATIC ENGLISH INFLECTION

William D. Foust.......................................................... 229

GERMAN SYNTAX PATTERNS

Joseph W. Marchand.................................................. ..234

THE USE OF GRAMMARS WITHIN THE MECHANICAL TRANSLATION ROUTINE

G.H. Matthews................................................................ .245

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION.............................................. 249

SESSION 6: SYNTAX

INTRODUCTION

Kenneth Harper............................................................... . 256

GROUPING AND DEPENDENCY THEORIES

David G. Hays................................................................ . 258

NESTING WITHIN THE PREPOSITIONAL STRUCTURE

Michael Zarechnak ......................................................... . 267

SYNTAX OF THE GERMAN NOUN PHRASE

Joseph R. Applegate......................................................... .280

SYNTACTIC RETRIEVAL

Paul L. Garvin................................................................ 286

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION .......................................... .293

SESSION 7: THE DICTIONARY

INTRODUCTION

Don R. Swanson............................................................. ..310

THE SOLUTION OF MT LINGUISTIC PROBLEMS THROUGH LEXICOGRAPHY

Erwin Reifler................................................................... ..312

AUTOMATIC AFFIX INTERPRETATION AND RELIABILITY

Murray E. Sherry............................................................ ..317

GLOSSARY LOOKUP MADE EASY

Hugh Kelly and Ted Ziehe ............................................... ..325

SEGMENTATION

Sydney M. Lamb............................................................. .335

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION............................................. .343

Session 8: INFORMATION PROCESSING AND LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION

H. P. Edmundson............................................................. .356

FROM TEXT TO TOPICS IN MECHANIZED SEARCH SYSTEMS

Thyllis Williams................................................................. ..358

A NEW THEORY OF TRANSLATION AND ITS APPLICATION

Anthony G. Oettinger........................................................ .363

MODEL TO PROCEDURE

Paul L. Garvin................................................................ .367

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION............................................... ..371

SESSION 9: SEMANTIC RESOLUTION

INTRODUCTION

Victor Oswald................................................................. ..384

THE NATURE OF MULTIPLE MEANING

Don R. Swanson............................................................ .386

SEMANTIC CLASSIFICATION

Ariadne W. Lukjanow .................................................. ..394

AN EXPERIMENT IN THE AUTOMATIC SELECTION OR REJECTION OF TECHNICAL TERMS

Lew R. Micklesen........................................................... 398

A GENERAL-PURPOSE LANGUAGE TRANSLATION PROGRAM FOR THE IBM 650 COMPUTER

Ramon D. Faulk............................................................. ..409

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION............................................. ..422

SESSION 10: PROGRAMMING

INTRODUCTION

Willis Ware..................................................................... 438

THE COMIT SYSTEM

Victor Yngve...................................................................... .439

FLEXIBILITY VERSUS SPEED

A.F. R. Brown.................................................................... .444

MIMIC: A TRANSLATION FOR ENGLISH CODING

Hugh Kelly........................................................................ 451

THE LOGIC OF AUTOMATIC FORMULA SYNTHESIS

Vincent Giuliano................................................................. .462

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION............................................. .472

SUMMATION BY CHAIRMAN

Willis Ware..................................................................... ...480

SESSION 11: EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION

Vincent Giuliano.............................................................. ..484

THE HIGH-SPEED GENERAL-PURPOSE COMPUTERS IN MACHINE TRANSLATION

B.D. Blickstein.............................................................. ..485

SYSTEM DESIGN OF A COMPUTER FOR RUSSIAN-ENGLISH TRANSLATION

Robert E. Wall . . ..................................................... 491

MODERN TRENDS IN CHARACTER RECOGNITION MACHINES

Dimitri A. Kellogg............................................................ .511

QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION............................................... 515

SUMMATION BY CHAIRMAN

Willis Ware...................................................................... .519

SPECIAL REPORT

Helen Bronson.............................................................. .521

CONCLUSION

H. P. Edmundson.......................................................... .523

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS