Machine Translation Archive


Introduction and guide to usage

The Machine Translation Archive is intended to be a permanent collection of publications (articles, books, conference papers) in the field of machine translation and computer-based translation technology from the beginnings in the 1940s. Until 2014 the aim was a comprehensive collection; however, for health reasons this level of comprehensiveness could not be maintained and the coverage has been reduced, primarily by no longer including conference proceedings available in the ACL anthology, and by discontinuing many of the indexes (see below). The archive will, however, seek to maintain coverage of papers of all conferences devoted specifically to machine translation (see below).

The editor welcomes comments on the recent changes of content and format (at: mtarchive ["at"] eamt ["dot"] org).  

Coverage.  The archive covers English-language publications on all aspects of machine translation and computer-assisted translation, translation memories, and translation tools; it includes also publications in related areas of interest to researchers in the field, such as controlled languages, cross-language information retrieval, information extraction, multilingual resources, terminology, etc. The proceedings of conferences devoted to machine translation (and computer-assisted translation) are covered in full from the beginnings until 2014.Other papers from conferences not devoted to MT  until 2014 have been included selectively (for details see below.)

Copyright. All publications are the copyright of authors (except where the copyright is held by a publisher). In general, any material may be used and copied for teaching and research purposes.  Permission is given under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Permission to download is not given, therefore, to any individuals or organizations which charge or intend to charge users (by fees or by subscriptions) for materials on their databases.

Citations. Every effort has been made to ensure the correctness and completeness of the bibliographical details. When citing articles it is recommended that these full details are given - plus, if and where appropriate, this source ( and the file name. File names consist generally of an abbreviation for the conference name, for organizations holding the conference, or for the journal title, followed by the year and the name of the first author. For example, ‘’ refers to a paper given by John White at the 1994 conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas. Users may be assured that these file names will not be changed, so that references and hyperlinks will always be valid.

Format. Publications are provided in PDF format (sometimes converted from PostScript or PowerPoint). As far as possible, publications have been scanned (and checked by the compiler for typographical mistakes) from the original hard copies. However, the reproduction and legibility of some PDF files are sometimes poor. In due course some of these will be re-scanned.

Indexes. All publications (pre- and post-2014) are listed in the index of authors under the names of all authors (in as full forms as can be ascertained). Note that names beginning Mc are ‘spelled out’ as Mac, and that diacritics are ignored (i.e. ü is filed as if u, ø as if o, å as if a, č as if c, etc.).

Until 2014 the archive included a number of indexes for organizations and affiliations, for languages and language pairs, for methods and techniques, for applications, for linguistic and computational aspects, for aspects of evaluation, for corpora and resources, for system names, and so forth. For details see the guide to subject indexes. Each of these indexes has been sub-divided into appropriate time periods (2010-2014. 2005-2009, 2000-2004, 1990-1999, and pre-1990).

Note that in all indexes publications are listed in reverse chronological order.

Conferences and journals. The proceedings of conferences devoted entirely to MT topics are included complete in the Archive. Tables of contents are found via the index of conferences. In a second index users can find a list of conferences from which articles have been selectively included until 2014 – these are conferences covering computational linguistics and other topics of interest to MT researchers – for example, papers included in the ACL anthology. A third index lists conferences, whether devoted wholly or partly to machine translation, which have yet to be included in the Archive. There are also tables of contents for those journals which are included so far; these are located in the index of journals.