Machine Translation Archive

Subject indexes: guide to locations

Index headings can be found

by going direct to one or more of the subject groups

[A full list of index headings, subjects and locations is given

in the alphabetical list below]



System types: e.g. statistical MT, example-based MT, transfer-based systems, hybrid systems, combination systems, pivot language systems, rule-based systems, word-for-word translation, spoken language translation

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


Methods, techniques, processes: e.g. alignment, word alignment, pre-processing, segmentation, morphological analysis, syntactic analysis, semantic analysis, generation, lexical transfer, syntactic transfer, reordering, post-processing

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


Statistical and computational aspects: e.g. cloud computing, computational complexity, confusion networks, finite-state methods, lattices, learning and training, programming, system development

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


Data, corpora, resources: e.g. bilingual corpora, crowd sourcing, lexical resources, domain adaptation, language resources, multilingual corpora, open source, scarce resources, World Wide Web

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


Evaluation: e.g. evaluation metrics, evaluation of systems, error detection, back translation, HTER, MERT, user evaluation, quality estimation

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


Linguistic aspects: e.g. grammars, anaphora, features, closely related languages, context-free grammar, dependency relations, multiword expressions, names, transliteration, terminology

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


Applications: e.g. text types, uses, services, information retrieval, localization, medical texts, news texts, online MT services, patents

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


Aids and tools for translators, translation memory, translation management

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


General and miscellaneous: e.g. future predictions, government policy, surveys and reviews, failures, historical aspects

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


Names of systems, projects, software: e.g. Apertium, ATLAS, BabelFish, Babylon, Europarl, Eurotra, Google Translate, Jane, Joshua, LetsMT, Mechanical Turk, MedSLT,  META-NET, METAL, Moses, ProMT, Reverso, Systran, Twitter, Wikipedia, Wiktionary

Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970


Full alphabetical list of subject index headings

and the groups in which they occur

[Note that not all subject headings in a group appear in every period]


                                                                                                                                            Subject group


Abbreviations                                                                                                                 Linguistic aspects

Abstracts                                                                                                                          Applications           

Accountancy texts                                                                                                          Applications

Adequacy assessment  see User evaluation                      

Adjectives                                                                                                                         Linguistic aspects

Administrative documents                                                                                           Applications

Adverbs                                                                                                                            Linguistic aspects

Advertising texts                                                                                                            Applications

Affixes                                                                                                                              Linguistic aspects

Agglutinative languages                                                                                              Linguistic aspects

Agricultural texts                                                                                                          Applications

Aircraft construction and maintenance                                                                   Applications

Air traffic control                                                                                                          Applications

Air travel see Travel and tourism                                       

Algorithms see Programming and coding

Alignment (see also Character alignment,                                                                Methods, processes

Statistical analysis, Word alignment)

Ambiguity preservation (see also Disambiguation)                                               Linguistic aspects

Analogies and analogical modelling                                                                        Methods, processes

(see also Example-based methods)

Analysis see Semantic analysis; Syntactic analysis                                           

Anaphora resolution                                                                                                     Linguistic aspects  

Annotations and features                                                                                             Linguistic aspects  

Antonyms                                                                                                                         Linguistic aspects  

Applications of MT see Uses of MT                                                                         

Articles                                                                                                                             Linguistic aspects

Artificial Intelligence methods (see also                                                                  System types

Knowledge representation, Neural networks)

Artificial languages                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Aspect                                                                                                                               Linguistic aspects  

ASR see Speech recognition                                                

Associations and societies                                                                                            General

ATN parser                                                                                                                      Computational/statistical aspects

Audiovisual media see Multimodal (and multimedia) applications

Authoring tools                                                                                                               Tools, aids

Authorship                                                                                                                      General

Automatic evaluation see Evaluation measures and metrics

Automobile industry                                                                                                     Applications

Awards                                                                                                                            General

Back translation                                                                                                             Evaluation

Bayesian methods                                                                                                          Computational/statistical aspects

Belief representation                                                                                                    Linguistic aspects

Benefits and advantages see User experiences and needs

Beverages                                                                                                                        Applications

Bible                                                                                                                                  Applications

Bibliography                                                                                                                   General

Bilingual corpora (see also Example-based methods,                                            Data, resources

Multilingual corpora, Test corpora)

Biology texts                                                                                                                   Applications

Bi-text see Bilingual corpora                                              

Blogs                                                                                                                                 Applications

Boltzmann machines                                                                                                     Computational/statistical aspects

Book reviews                                                                                                                   General

Books on MT                                                                                                                   General

Bootstrapping                                                                                                                 Computational/statistical aspects

Bracketing transduction grammar see Transduction grammars                      

Braille                                                                                                                               Linguistic aspects

Bridge language see Pivot language                                                                        

Broadcasting (see also News texts)                                                                             Applications

Business texts                                                                                                                  Applications

Capitalization see Written forms                                        

Case-based methods                                                                                                      Methods, processes

Case grammar and case frames                                                                                Linguistic aspects

Categorial grammar                                                                                                    Linguistic aspects

Causation                                                                                                                         Linguistic aspects

Character alignment                                                                                                     Methods, processes

Character coding                                                                                                           Computational/statistical aspects

Character recognition see Optical character  recognition

Chart parsing                                                                                                                  Computational/statistical aspects

Chatrooms and discussion fora (see also Tweets)                                                   Applications

Chemistry texts                                                                                                               Applications

Chunks and chunking see Segmentation                                                                 

Classifiers  see Annotations and features

Cleaning and filtering                                                                                                  Data, resources

Closely related languages                                                                                            Linguistic aspects  

Clothing and dress                                                                                                         Applications

Cloze technique                                                                                                              Evaluation

Cloud computing                                                                                                            Computational/statistical aspects

Code switching see Dialects and registers                                                                Linguistic aspects

Cognates                                                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Cognitive aspects                                                                                                           General

Cognitive linguistics                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Coherence and Cohesion see Reference                                                                  

Collaboration (see also Associations and societies)                                               General

Collocations see Multiword expressions                          

Colloquial language  see Dialects and registers

Combination systems (see also Multi-engine systems)                                          System types

Combinatory categorical grammar see Categorial grammar

Commercial systems (see also Economics of MT)                                                   Applications

Community content  see Crowd sourcing                                                               

Community forum (see also Social networking)                                                    Applications

Compact disks                                                                                                                 Computational/statistical aspects

Comparable corpora                                                                                                    Data, resources      

Comparative evaluations of systems see Evaluation of systems

Comparatives                                                                                                                 Linguistic aspects

Compositionality                                                                                                           Linguistic aspects  

Compound nouns see Nouns and noun phrases                                                    

Comprehensibility (see Reading and  comprehension) 

Computational complexity (see also Modularity)                                                  Computational/statistical aspects

Computational linguistics see Language technology

Computer equipment and accessories (see also                                                      Computational/statistical aspects

Microcomputers, Photoscopic store;

Programming and coding)

Computer manuals (see also Software documentation)                                       Applications

Computer networks (see also Internet)                                                                      Computational/statistical aspects

Computer science and information technology texts                                           Applications

Concatenation grammar see Inversion transduction  grammar

Concordances                                                                                                                 Data, resources

Conditional random fields                                                                                          Computational/statistical aspects

Conference registrations and hotel bookings                                                         Applications

Conference reports [for conference proceedings                                                     General

see list of conferences]

Confidence measures (see also Quality estimation)                                                Evaluation

Confusion networks (see also Combination systems,      Computational/statistical aspects

Lattices and networks)

Conjunctions and connectives (see also Coordination)                                         Linguistic aspects

Connectionism see Neural networks                                                                        

Consistency                                                                                                                      Methods, processes

Constraint synchronous grammar see Context-free grammar

Consumer services see Customer services, Information services                       

Content management                                                                                                    Tools, aids

Context-based and context-aware methods                                                             Methods, processes

Context-free grammars                                                                                               Linguistic aspects

Continuous space                                                                                                           Computational/statistical aspects

Contrastive linguistics                                                                                                  Linguistic aspects

Controlled languages                                                                                                    Linguistic aspects

Conversation see Dialogue                                                                                        

Cooking see Food and cooking                                                                                 

Coordination                                                                                                                   Linguistic aspects

Copyright (see also Patents)                                                                                        General

Corpora see Bilingual corpora, Multilingual corpora

Corpus-based MT see Context-based methods,              

Example-based methods, Statistical MT

Correlational grammar                                                                                               Linguistic aspects

Countability see Number (singular, plural)                                                            

Crawlers see Statistical methods

Cross-language information retrieval see Information retrieval

Crowd sourcing                                                                                                              Data, resources

Cultural aspects see Social and cultural aspects                                                  

Customer services                                                                                                        Applications

Customization and implementation (see also Integration,                                   Computational/statistical aspects

        System development)                                                                                            

Cybernetics                                                                                                                      Computational/statistical aspects

Cyrillic coding and transliteration                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Databases and data management                                                                              Applications

Data elicitation                                                                                                               Data, resources

Data-oriented translation (see also Example-based methods)                              System types

Dates                                                                                                                                  Linguistic aspects

Decipherment                                                                                                                  Linguistic aspects

Decoding  see Programming and algorithms

Decomposition see Segmentation                                                                             

Definite Clause Grammar                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Definitions                                                                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Demonstration see Product review                                                                            Evaluation

Dependency relations                                                                                                    Linguistic aspects

Determiners  see Articles

Diacritics                                                                                                                          Linguistic aspects

Dialects and registers                                                                                                    Linguistic aspects

Dialogue                                                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Dictation                                                                                                                           Tools, aids

Dictionaries see Lexical resources                                                                           

Direct translation approach                                                                                        System types

Disabled persons                                                                                                            Applications

Disambiguation (see also Word sense disambiguation)                                         Methods, processes

Discontinuous relations                                                                                                Linguistic aspects

Discourse analysis and representation                                                                     Linguistic aspects

Dissertations see Theses and dissertations                                                             

Distance education                                                                                                         Applications

Distributional analysis (see also Statistical analysis)                                            Computational/statistical aspects

Divergence see Lexical transfer, Syntactic transfer                                              

Document management and organization                                                              Tools, aids

Domain identification                                                                                                   Data, resources

Domain restriction, adaptation and specification                                                 Data, resources

Drug enforcement                                                                                                          Applications

Dubbing                                                                                                                            Applications

Dynamic programming                                                                                               Computational/statistical aspects

Economic aspects                                                                                                           General

Economics texts                                                                                                              Applications

Edit distance                                                                                                                    Evaluation

Educational texts see Teaching materials                                                                

Electronic commerce and MT                                                                                  General

Electronic mail                                                                                                               Applications

Electronics texts                                                                                                             Applications

Ellipsis                                                                                                                              Linguistic aspects  

Embedded MT                                                                                                                Applications

Emergency services                                                                                                      Applications

Emotional expression see Sentiment

Emphasis and stress                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Employment                                                                                                                    Applications

Empty and null categories  see Pronouns

Encyclopedia texts                                                                                                         Applications

Energy texts                                                                                                                    Applications

Engineering texts                                                                                                           Applications

Entailment (see also Logical aspects)                                                                        Linguistic aspects

Environment documents                                                                                              Applications

Ergonomic aspects                                                                                                        General

Error detection and correction                                                                                  Evaluation

Estimation maximization see Learning and training,  Statistical analysis

Etymology                                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Evaluation measures and metrics (see also Test corpora)                                  Evaluation

Evaluations of systems (see also Product reviews, User evaluation)                  Evaluation

Example-based MT                                                                                                       System types

Examples of MT output                                                                                               Evaluation

Expert systems see Artificial Intelligence and MT                                               

Factoring see Annotations and features, Morphological analysis                    

FAHQT (Fully automatic high quality translation)      General

False friends  see Cognates

Features see Annotations and features                                                                    

Failures and limitations (see also Unknown and rare words)                              General

Fashion  see Clothing and dress

Feedback see Learning and training                                                                       

File interchange and exchange                                                                                   Computational/statistical aspects

Filtering see Cleaning and filtering                                  

Financial texts                                                                                                                Applications

Finite-state methods (see also Statistical analysis)                                                 Computational/statistical aspects

Flexowriter                                                                                                                    Computational/statistical aspects

Fluency see Readability and comprehension                                                         

Focus                                                                                                                                 Linguistic aspects

Food and cooking                                                                                                          Applications           

Forest-based methods see Chart parsing                                                                

Formalisms see Grammar formalisms                                                                      

Fulcrum approach                                                                                                         Computational/statistical aspects

Functional Generative Grammar                                                                             Linguistic aspects

Functional unification grammar see Unification grammar

Function words (see also Conjunctions, Particles,                                                  Linguistic aspects

Prepositions, Postpositions, etc.)

Future prospects and predictions (see also Proposed systems)                            General

General methodology (see also Theoretical aspects)                                             General

General (non-specialist) articles (see also Failures of MT)                                   General

Generalised Phrase Structure Grammar                                                                Linguistic aspects

Generation (see also Text prediction)                                                                        Methods, processes

Genre                                                                                                                                Applications

Geography and geology texts                                                                                     Applications

Globalization                                                                                                                  Applications

Government Binding theory see Principles and parameters

Government documentation                                                                                       Applications

Government intelligence and MT                                                                              Applications

Government policy and MT                                                                                        General

Grammar checkers                                                                                                       Tools, aids

Grammar formalisms                                                                                                  Linguistic aspects

Grammars and grammar acquisition                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Graphics see Written forms                                                                                        

Graphs                                                                                                                              Computational/statistical aspects

Hand-held devices see Mobile devices                                                                    

Hardware see Computer equipment and accessories                                           

Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar                                                               Linguistic aspects

Health see Medicine and health                                         

Hidden Markov models [see also Markov random fields]                                     Computational/statistical aspects

Historical aspects                                                                                                           General

Historical linguistics                                                                                                     Linguistic aspects

Homonyms, homographs and homophones (see                                                    Linguistic aspects

also Word sense disambiguation)

Honorifics                                                                                                                        Linguistic aspects

HTML in MT                                                                                                                  Computational/statistical aspects

Human-computer communication                                                                            Computational/statistical aspects

Human Language Technology see Language  technology

Human-targeted Translation Edit Rate (HTER)                                                   Evaluation

Human translation and MT (see also Translation                                                  Tools, aids

tools and aids for translators)

Humanitarian aid                                                                                                          Applications

Humanities                                                                                                                      Applications

Humour and MT                                                                                                            Applications

Hybrid systems (see also Multi-engine systems)                                                      System types

Hypertext                                                                                                                         System types

Idioms                                                                                                                               Linguistic aspects

Illocutions in MT                                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Images see Visual information                                                                                  

Imperatives and commands                                                                                        Linguistic aspects

Impersonal constructions                                                                                            Linguistic aspects

Implementation of MT see Customization and implementation

Implicit elements                                                                                                          Linguistic aspects

Industrialization of MT see Customization and implementation

Inference see Learning and training, Logic-based MT                                        

Inflection                                                                                                                          Linguistic aspects

Informal language see Dialects and registers

Information extraction                                                                                               Applications

Information retrieval (see also Keywords and                                                        Applications

keyphrases, Semantic Web)

Information services (see also Customer services, Translation services)           Applications

Information technology texts see Computer science                                           

and information technology texts

Information theory                                                                                                       Computational/statistical aspects

Informativeness                                                                                                             Evaluation

Installation and integration  see Customization and  implementation

Instant messaging see Mobile devices                                                                     

Instructions                                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Interactive systems                                                                                                        System types

Interlingua MT (see also Knowledge-based                                                             System types

MT, Language universals)

Intermediary (natural) language see Pivot language                                          

Internationalization see Localization                                                                     

International terms                                                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Internet (see also Chatroom language, Electronic                                                  Applications

mail, Online MT, World Wide Web)

Interoperability (see also File interchange and exchange)                                  Computational/statistical aspects

Interpretation and MT (see also Spoken language translation )                         Linguistic aspects

Interpretation service                                                                                                   Applications

Interrogatives and questions                                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Intonation see Emphasis and stress                                                                          

Introductions to MT                                                                                                      General

Inversion transduction grammar see Transduction grammars                         

Isomorphism see Reversibility                                                                                  

Journals on MT                                                                                                              General

Keywords and keyphrases                                                                                           Applications

Knowledge-based MT                                                                                                   System types

Knowledge representation see Ontologies

Knowledge resources                                                                                                   Data, resources

Koran see Quran                                                                   

Language death and preservation                                                                             Linguistic aspects

Language engineering  see Language technology

Language identification                                                                                               Linguistic aspects

Language models see also Generation                                                                      Methods, processes

Language resources (see also Bilingual corpora,                                                   Data, resources

Lexical resources, Multilingual corpora)

Language teaching and learning                                                                               Applications

Language technology                                                                                                   General

Language universals                                                                                                     Linguistic aspects

Latent Semantic Analysis                                                                                            Linguistic aspects

Lattices and networks                                                                                                   Computational/statistical aspects

Learning and training                                                                                                  Computational/statistical aspects

Lectures and speeches                                                                                                   Applications

Left Associative Grammar                                                                                         Linguistic aspects

Legal aspects                                                                                                                   General

Legal texts                                                                                                                       Applications

Lemmatization see Segmentation

Lexical acquisition see Lexical resources

Lexical Functional Grammar                                                                                    Linguistic aspects

Lexical gaps see Lexical transfer                                                                             

Lexical resources and lexical acquisition                                                               Data, resources

Lexical transfer                                                                                                             Methods, processes

Lexicalist approach                                                                                                      System types

Limitations see Failures and limitations                                                                

Limited domain see Domain restriction and specification

Limited resources see Scarce resources, Rapid development of MT

Linear transduction grammar see Transduction  grammars

Linguistic features (see also Annotations and  features)                                       Linguistic aspects

Linguistics and MT                                                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Literary works                                                                                                               Applications

Loan words                                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Localization                                                                                                                    Applications

Locatives                                                                                                                          Linguistic aspects

Logical aspects                                                                                                               Linguistic aspects

Logic-based MT                                                                                                             System types

Low resourced languages see Scarce resources                                                   

Lyrics                                                                                                                              Applications

Machine aids for translators see Translation  tools and aids for translators

Machine learning and MT see Learning and training                                        

Machinery                                                                                                                       Applications

Margin induced relaxed algorithm [MIRA]                                                           Computational/statistical aspects

Maritime documentation                                                                                             Applications

Marketing, sales and product support texts see Business texts

Market surveys                                                                                                               Applications

Markov models see Hidden Markov models                                                          

Markov random fields                                                                                                 Computational/statistical aspects

Mathematical linguistics                                                                                              Computational/statistical aspects

Mathematics texts                                                                                                          Applications

Maximum entropy methods (see also Conditional random fields)                     Computational/statistical aspects

Meaning see Semantic analysis and representation                                             

Meaning-text model                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Measure words see Numbers and numerals                                                             

Mechanical engineering                                                                                               Applications

Medicine and health                                                                                                      Applications

Meetings                                                                                                                           Applications

Memory-based MT see Example-based MT

Messaging see Mobile devices                                                                                   

Metaphor                                                                                                                         Linguistic aspects

Meteorological reports                                                                                                Applications

Metonomy                                                                                                                        Linguistic aspects

Microblogs  see Blogs, Social networking

Microcomputers                                                                                                             Computational/statistical aspects

Microglossaries see Sublanguage                                                                           

Military texts                                                                                                                  Applications

Minimal Recursion Semantics                                                                                    Linguistic aspects

Minimum Bayes risk see Bayesian methods                   

Minimum Error Rate Training [MERT]                                                                 Evaluation

Minority languages                                                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Mixture modelling                                                                                                         Computational/statistical aspects

Mobile devices                                                                                                                Applications

Modality                                                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Modularity (see also Customization and implementation)                                    Computational/statistical aspects

Monolingual corpora                                                                                                   Data, resources

Monolingual methods and systems                                                                            System types

Monolingual use                                                                                                             Applications

Monologue                                                                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Montague grammar                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Morphological analysis (see also Segmentation, Tagging)                                  Methods, processes

Mountaineering                                                                                                              Applications

Multi-engine systems (see also Hybrid systems)                                                       System types

Multilingual communication (see also Globalization)                                          Applications

Multilingual corpora                                                                                                    Data, resources

Multilingual systems                                                                                                     System types

Multimodal (and multimedia) applications (see also                                            Applications

Visual information)

Multiple meaning see Disambiguation                                                                   

Multi-source translation see Multi-engine systems                                              

Multiword expressions (see also Nouns and Noun                                                 Linguistic aspects

phrases, Prepositional phrases, Verbs and

verb phrases)

Names and named entities                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Natural language processing see Language technology

Natural language understanding                                                                               Computational/statistical aspects         

Negation                                                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Neologisms see Unknown and rare words

Networks see Continuous space, Lattices and networks, Neural networks,

           Semantic analysis  and representation

Neural networks                                                                                                             Computational/statistical aspects

News texts (see also Syndicated feeds)                                                                       Applications

Non-contiguous relations see Discontiguous relations                                         

Normalization                                                                                                                Linguistic aspects

Nouns and noun phrases                                                                                               Linguistic aspects

Nuclear s cience texts                                                                                                    Applications

Number (singular, plural)                                                                                            Linguistic aspects

Numbers and numerals                                                                                                Linguistic aspects

Obituaries                                                                                                                        General

Office automation                                                                                                         Applications

Official documents                                                                                                        Applications

Oil and petroleum documentation                                                                             Applications

Olympic games                                                                                                               Applications

Online MT services                                                                                                       Applications

Ontologies                                                                                                                        Data, resources

Open source                                                                                                                     Data, resources

Optical character recognition                                                                                    Tools, aids

Oracle extraction see Confusion networks                                                            

Oracle decoding see Evaluation measures and metrics

Organizations and associations (see also Collaboration)                                    General

Orthography  see Written forms

Out of vocabulary see Unknown and rare words

Overviews see Surveys and reviews                                                                         

Pairwise ranking                                                                                                            Computational/statistical aspects

Parallel processing                                                                                                        Computational/statistical aspects

Parallel text corpora see Bilingual corpora                                                         

Paraphrases                                                                                                                    Linguistic aspects

Parentheses                                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Parsing see Syntactic analysis, Tagging                                                                  

Particles                                                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Parts of speech see Tagging                                                                                        

Passives                                                                                                                            Linguistic aspects

Patents (see also Copyright)                                                                                         Applications

Patents relating to MT                                                                                                  General

Pattern matching methods (see also Example-based      System types

methods, Learning and training)

Perceptron (see also Lattices and networks)                                                             Computational/statistical aspects

Personal names see Names [named entities]                                                         

Pharmaceutical texts                                                                                                    Applications

Phonology and phonetics                                                                                             Linguistic aspects

Photoscopic store                                                                                                           Computational/statistical aspects

Phrase-based MT see Statistical MT                                                                       

Phrasebooks                                                                                                                    Applications

Physics texts                                                                                                                    Applications

Pidgin language                                                                                                   Linguistic aspects

Pivot language systems (see also Interlingua methods)                                         System types

Plagiarism                                                                                                                       General

Poetry see Literary works, Lyrics                                       

Police                                                                                                                                Applications

Political texts                                                                                                                  Applications

Portability see Reusability

Portable devices see Mobile devices                                                                        

Portals for MT services                                                                                               Applications

Possessives                                                                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Post-editing and post-processing (see also Error detection and correction)     Methods, processes

Postpositions                                                                                                                   Linguistic aspects

Pragmatics in MT                                                                                                          Linguistic aspects

Predicates and arguments see Dependency relations                                           

Predictive methods (see also Text prediction)                                                          Computational/statistical aspects

Pre-editing and pre-processing (see also Controlled languages)                        Methods, processes

Preferences see Semantic analysis and representation, Syntactic analysis

           and representation

Prepositional phrases                                                                                                   Linguistic aspects  

Prepositions                                                                                                                     Linguistic aspects

Principles and parameters (grammar theory)                                                       Linguistic aspects

Printing                                                                                                                           Applications

Probabilistic methods see Statistical analysis                                                      

Product development see System development                                                      

Product reviews                                                                                                              Evaluation

Programming and algorithms (see also Computer                                                Computational/statistical aspects

equipment and accessories, Crawlers, Dynamic

programming, Parallel processing)

Pronouns                                                                                                                          Linguistic aspects

Pronunciation                                                                                                                 Linguistic aspects

Proposed systems                                                                                                           System types

Prosody see Discourse

Possessives                                                                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Pruning see Cleaning and filtering

Psychological aspects (see also Cognitive aspects)                                                General

Publishing                                                                                                                        Tools, aids

Punched cards                                                                                                                 Computational/statistical aspects

Punctuation                                                                                                                     Linguistic aspects

Pushdown automata                                                                                                      Computational/statistical aspects

Quality assurance                                                                                                          Evaluation

Quality control                                                                                                               Evaluation

Quality estimation                                                                                                         Evaluation

Quality improvement techniques (see also Interactive methods)                        Evaluation

Quality measures see Evaluation measures and metrics                                      

Quantifiers                                                                                                                      Linguistic aspects

Question-answering                                                                                                       Applications

Questions see Interrogatives and questions                                                            

Quran                                                                                                                                Applications

Railway systems                                                                                                             Applications

Rapid development of MT systems (see also Tools

              and aids for MT/NLP developers)                                                                  Methods, processes

Rare words see Unknown and rare words                                                              

Reading and comprehension                                                                                       Evaluation

Reduplicatives                                                                                                                Linguistic aspects

Reference (see also Anaphora resolution, Pronouns)     Linguistic aspects

Reference translations see Evaluation measures and metrics

Referent grammar see Definite Clause Grammar                                                

Registers see Dialects and registers                                                                         

Relational grammar                                                                                                     Linguistic aspects

Relevance ranking                                                                                                         Evaluation

Reliability see Consistency

Religious texts                                                                                                                 Applications

Re-ordering (see also Generation, Syntactic transfer)                                           Methods, processes

Research (general) (see also General methodology)                                               General

Research policy and surveys (see also Government policy and MT)                   General

Reusability                                                                                                                       Methods, processes

Reversibility                                                                                                                    Methods, processes

Rhetorical Structure Theory see Discourse representation

Road engineering                                                                                                           Applications

Robustness                                                                                                                       Computational/statistical aspects

Role and reference grammar                                                                                     Linguistic aspects

Role labels  see Annotations

RSS feeds see Syndicated feeds                                          

Round-trip translation see Back translation                                                         

Rule-based systems (see also Interlingua MT, Transfer-based MT)                     System types

Scarce resources (see also Language resources, Rapid  development of MT)   Data, resources

Scientific texts                                                                                                                 Applications

Scope                                                                                                                                 Linguistic aspects

Segmentation (see also Morphological analysis, Tagging)                                   Methods, processes

Semantic analysis and representation (see also                                                      Methods, processes

Disambiguation, Latent semantic analysis)

Semantic transfer  see Lexical transfer

Semantic Web                                                                                                                 Applications

Semiotic aspects                                                                                                            Linguistic aspects

Sentiment                                                                                                                        Linguistic aspects

SGML in MT                                                                                                                   Computational/statistical aspects

Shake & Bake method                                                                                                  Linguistic aspects

Ship building and maintenance                                                                                  Applications

Sign languages                                                                                                                Linguistic aspects

Signs see Visual information                                                                                      

Similarity measures                                                                                                      Computational/statistical aspects

Simplification (see also Normalization, Reading and comprehension)             Linguistic aspects

Situation theory                                                                                                            Linguistic aspects

Slang                                                                                                                                 Lingustic aspects

Slot grammar                                                                                                                 Linguistic aspects

SMS see Mobile devices                                                                                              

Social and cultural aspects                                                                                          General

Social networks and media                                                                                          Applications

Social sciences                                                                                                                Applications

Software documentation (see also Computer manuals)                                         Applications

Software localization  see Localization

Software resources                                                                                                        Data, resources

Software reviews see Product reviews

Sparse data see Scarce resources                                       

Spatial expressions                                                                                                        Linguistic aspects

Speech acts                                                                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Speech recognition                                                                                                        Methods, processes

Speech synthesis                                                                                                             Methods, processes

Speech-to-speech translation see Spoken language  translation

Speech-to-text translation  see Transcription

Spelling checkers and correction                                                                               Linguistic aspects

Spoken language resources                                                                                         Data, resources

Spoken language translation                                                                                      System types

Sport                                                                                                                                  Applications

Standards for MT                                                                                                          General

Statistical methods (general) (see also Finite-state methods,

                                                  Hidden Markov models)                                               Computational/statistical aspects

Statistical MT (see also Alignment, Word alignment)                                             System types

Stock market reports                                                                                                    Applications

Stratificational grammar                                                                                            Linguistic aspects

String grammar                                                                                                             Linguistic aspects

Stylistic aspects                                                                                                               Linguistic aspects

Subjectivity see Pragmatics and MT                                                                         

Sublanguage (see also Domain restriction and specification)                              Linguistic aspects

Subtitles                                                                                                                            Applications

Suffix trees                                                                                                                      Computational/statistical aspects

Summarization                                                                                                               Applications

Support vector machines                                                                                             Computational/statistical aspects

Surveys and reviews: general (see also General (non-specialist) articles)        General

Surveys and reviews: specific areas and countries                                               General

Syllables                                                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Synchronous context-free grammar see Context-free grammar

Synchronous dependency grammar see Dependency relations

Synchronous grammars see Syntactic transfer

Syndicated feeds                                                                                                             Applications

Synonyms                                                                                                                         Linguistic aspects

Syntactic analysis and representation (see also                                                      Methods, processes

Case grammar and case frames, Chart parsing,

 Dependency relations, Discontiguous relations,


Syntactic transfer (see also Re-ordering)                                                                  Methods, processes

System development                                                                                                      Computational/statistical aspects

Systemic Functional Grammar                                                                                  Linguistic aspects

Tagging (see also Segmentation)                                                                                Methods, processes

Talks  see Lectures and speeches

Taxonomies                                                                                                                     Linguistic aspects 

Teaching materials                                                                                                       Applications

Teaching MT                                                                                                                  General

Technical documents                                                                                                    Applications

Telecommunications                                                                                                     Computational/statistical aspects

Telegraphs                                                                                                                       Applications

Telephony                                                                                                                        Applications

Television captions/subtitles see Subtitles                                                             

Temporal expressions                                                                                                  Linguistic aspects

Tense (see also Temporal expressions)                                                                       Linguistic aspects

Termbanks                                                                                                                      Data, resources

Terminology management                                                                                          Linguistic aspects

Terminology of MT                                                                                                      General

Test corpora                                                                                                                    Evaluation

Text alignment see Alignment                                                                                   

Text categorization see Domain identification                                                     

Textiles documents                                                                                                        Applications

Text mining see Information retrieval                                                                     

Text prediction (see also Predictive methods)                                                         Computational/statistical aspects

Text-related glossaries                                                                                                 Data, resources

Text structure see Discourse

Text typology                                                                                                                  Applications

Text understanding (see also Discourse                                                                    Linguistic aspects

representation, Natural language understanding)

Theoretical aspects (see also General methodology)                                              General

Thesauri (see also Tree banks)                                                                                     Linguistic aspects

Theses and dissertations                                                                                               General

Text categorization  see Topic analysis

Think-aloud protocols                                                                                                  Evaluation

Titles                                                                                                                                 Applications

Tokenization see Segmentation                                                                                

Tones and tone languages                                                                                            Linguistic aspects

Tools and aids for MT/NLP developers                                                                  Tools, aids

Topic analysis and topic models                                                                                Applications

Topic and comment see Discourse representation                                               

Tourism see Travel and tourism                                                                               

Trademarks                                                                                                                    Applications

Training see Learning and training                                                                        

Transcription (see also Transliteration)                                                                   Linguistic aspects

Transduction grammars                                                                                              Linguistic aspects

Transfer-based MT                                                                                                       System types

Transformational-generative grammar                                                                 Linguistic aspects

Translatability                                                                                                               Evaluation

Translating (process)                                                                                                    Tools, aids

Translation archive                                                                                                      Data, resources

Translation Edit Rate                                                                                                   Evaluation

Translationese                                                                                                                Evaluation

Translation management                                                                                            Tools, aids

Translation memory                                                                                                     Tools, aids

Translation profession                                                                                                 Tools, aids

Translation revision                                                                                                     Tools, aids

Translation services (see also Online MT)                                                                Applications

Translation theory                                                                                                        General

Translation tools and aids for translators                                                              Tools, aids

Translation volunteers see Crowd sourcing                                                          

Translation workstation                                                                                              Tools, aids

Translator training                                                                                                       Tools, aids

Transliteration (see also Cyrillic coding and transliteration)                             Linguistic aspects

Travel and tourism                                                                                                       Applications

Tree Adjoining Grammar (TAG)                                                                              Linguistic aspects

Treebanks (see also Semantic analysis and representation,                                Data, resources

           Thesaurus method)

Tree transduction see Syntactic transfer                                                                

Triage see Information extraction                                                                             

Triangulation see Pivot language                                                                           

Tweets                                                                                                                               Applications

Unification grammar                                                                                                   Linguistic aspects

Universals see Semantic analysis and representation                                           

Unknown and rare words                                                                                             Linguistic aspects

Usability of systems                                                                                                       Evaluation

Usage surveys (see also Market surveys)                                                                   Applications

User evaluation and feedback                                                                                    Evaluation

User experiences and needs                                                                                         Applications

User forum (see also Information services)                                                             Applications

User-generated content (see also Social networks and media)                            Applications

Uses of MT (see also Monolingual use, Usability of systems)                               Applications

Utility of systems  see Usability of systems

Valency see Case grammar                                                                                          

Vector models                                                                                                                 Computational/statistical aspects

Verbs and verb phrases                                                                                                Linguistic aspects

Videos                                                                                                                               Applications

Videotext                                                                                                                          Applications

Virtual reality                                                                                                                 Computational/statistical aspects

Virtualization                                                                                                                 Computational/statistical aspects

Visual information                                                                                                        Applications

Web-based applications                                                                                               Applications

Welding texts                                                                                                                  Applications

Wikipedia go to Names of systems and projects

Wikis                                                                                                                                 Data, resources

Wiktionary                                                                                                                      Data, resources

Word alignment                                                                                                             Methods, processes

Word association                                                                                                           Linguistic aspects

Word-for-word approach                                                                                            System types

Word frequency                                                                                                             Linguistic aspects

Word graphs see Graphs                                                                                            

Wordnets (see also WordNet in index of systems)                                                   Data, resources

Word processors                                                                                                            Computational/statistical aspects

Word sense disambiguation                                                                                        Methods, processes

Workflow see Document management and organization, Translation


Workstations for MT/NLP developers see Tools and aids for MT/NLP developers

World Wide Web (see also Internet, Semantic Web, Web-based applications) Data, resources

Written forms                                                                                                                 Linguistic aspects

XML                                                                                                                                  Computational/statistical aspects

Zero elements see Implicit elements