Machine Translation Archive

 

Index to statistical and computational aspects

Publications 2000-2004

For other periods go to: Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 1990-1999; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970

 

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Bayesian methods

(2002) Shankar Kumar & William Byrne: Minimum Bayes-risk word alignments of bilingual texts. EMNLP-2002: Proceedings of the 2002 conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, July 2002, Philadelphia, USA; pp.140-147 [PDF, 263KB]

Bootstrapping

(2004) Pascale Fung & Percy Cheung: Mining very-non-parallel corpora: parallel sentence and lexicon extraction via bootstrapping and EM. EMNLP-2004: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 8pp. [PDF, 276KB]

(2004) Pascale Fung & Percy Cheung: Multi-level bootstrapping for extracting parallel sentences from a quasi-comparable corpus.  Coling 2004: 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 23-27 August 2004, University of Geneva, Switzerland, Proceedings; 7pp. [PDF, 245KB]

(2004) Hang Li & Cong Li: Word translation disambiguation using bilingual bootstrapping. Computational Linguistics 30 (1), pp. 1-22. [PDF, 2311KB]

(2003) Chris Callison-Burch & Miles Osborne: Bootstrapping parallel corpora HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop, "Building and using parallel texts: data driven machine translation and beyond", 31 May 2003, Edmonton, Canada. [PDF, 83KB]

(2002) Ruvan Weerasinghe: Bootstrapping the lexicon building process for machine translation between 'new' languages. Machine translation: from research to real users: 5th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2002, Tiburon, CA, October 2002; ed. Stephen D. Richardson (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002); pp. 177-186. [go to publisher details]

(2000) Hiroshi Masuichi, Raymond Flournoy, Stefan Kaufmann, & Stanley Peters: A bootstrapping method for extracting bilingual text pairs Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July -4 August 2000; pp. 1066-1070 [PDF,.464KB]

(2000) Ioannis Triantafyllou, Iason Demiros, Christos Malavazos, & Stelios Piperidis: An alignment architecture for translation memory bootstrapping. MT2000: machine translation and multilingual applications in the new millennium: international conference at the University of Exeter, 20-22 November 2000, organised by the British Computer Society. [London: BCS]; 8pp. [PDF, 1579KB]

Character coding

(2004) Patrick A.V.Hall: Localising nations, saving languages: moving from Unicode to language engineering. Translating and the Computer 26: proceedings of the Twenty-sixth International Conference on Translating and the Computer, 18-19 November 2004, London. (London: Aslib, 2004); 12pp. [PDF, 172KB]

Confusion networks see Lattices and networks

Customization and implementation

(2003) Rémi Zajac: MT customization. Tutorial at MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, September 2003 [PDF of presentation, 2150KB]

(2002) Natalie Kübler: Creating a term base to customise an MT system: reusability of resources and tools from the translator’s point of view. LREC-2002: Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Workshop: Language resources for translation work and research, Las Palmas Canary Islands, 27 May 2002; pp.44-48. [PDF, 31KB]

(2002) Bert Maes & Francis Roossens: Knowledge services at work. Language International 14 (1), February 2002; pp.16-19. [PDF, 881KB]

(2001) Winfield Scott Bennett: Creating enterprise machine translation systems. International Journal of Translation 13 (1-2), Jan-Dec 2001; pp.209-215. [PDF,  35KB]

(2001) Jon Wells: Productively testing the scalability of MT & TM to the limit! And beyond. Translating and the Computer 23: papers from the Aslib conference held on 29 & 30 November 2001 (London: Aslib, 2001); 9pp. [PDF, 187KB]

(2000) Sarah Grip: Case study: machine translation comes to Corning Cable Systems. Language International 12 (5), October 2000; pp.18-20. [PDF, 555KB]

(2000) Heinz Kirchmann, Alassane Ndiaye & Andreas Klüter: From a stationary prototype to telephone translation services. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp. 659-669. [abstract]

Dynamic programming

(2003) Eiichiro Sumita: An example-based machine translation system using DP-matching between word sequences. In: Michael Carl & Andy Way (eds.) Recent advances in example-based machine translation (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 189-209.

(2003) Christoph Tillmann & Hermann Ney: Word reordering and a dynamic programming beam search algorithm for statistical machine translation. Computational Linguistics 29 (1), pp.97-133. [PDF, 352KB]

(2003) Keiji Yasuda, Fumiaki Sugaya, Toshiyuki Takezawa, Seiichi Yamamoto & Masuzo Yamagida:  Applications of automatic evaluation methods to measuring a capability of speech translation system. EACL 2003: 10th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, April 12-17, 2003, Budapest, Hungary. Proceedings; pp.371-378 [PDF, 1659KB]

(2001) Federico Prat: Machine translation with grammar association: some improvements and the Loco_C model. ACL-EACL 2001 workshop "Data-driven machine translation", July 7, 2001, Toulouse, France; pp.71-78. [PDF, 89KB]

(2001) Eiichiro Sumita: Example-based machine translation using DP-matching between word sequences. ACL-EACL 2001 workshop "Data-driven machine translation", July 7, 2001, Toulouse, France; pp.1-8. [PDF, 79KB]

(2000) Christoph Tillmann & Hermann Ney: Word reordering and DP-based search in statistical machine translation Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July -4 August 2000; pp. 850-856 [PDF,.603KB]

File interchange and exchange

(2002) Debbie Folaron: Telesharing translation assets. Language International 14 (5), October 2002; pp.32-33, 36-37. [PDF, 830KB]

(2002) Lee Gillam, Khurshid Ahmad, David Dulby, & Christopher Cox: Knowledge exchange and terminology interchange: the role of standards. Translating and the Computer 24: proceedings from the Aslib conference held on 21-22 November 2002 (London: Aslib, 2002); 22pp. [PDF, 277KB]; presentation by Lee Gillam [with minor defects], 40 slides [PDF of PPT, 389KB]

(2002) Mike Roche: Web services for translation.  Translating and the Computer 24: proceedings from the Aslib conference held on 21-22 November 2002 (London: Aslib, 2002); 8pp. [PDF, 60KB]

(2001) Christian Lieske, Susan McCormick & Gregor Thurmair: The Open Lexicon Interchange Format (OLIF) comes of age. MT Summit VIII: Machine Translation in the Information Age, Proceedings, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 18-22 September 2001; pp.211-216. [PDF, 184KB]

(2001) Uwe Mügge: The best of two worlds. Language International 13 (6), December 2001; pp.26-29. [PDF, 820KB]

(2000) Susan M.McCormick: Exchanging lexical and terminological data with OLIF2. Translating and the Computer 22: proceedings of the Twenty-second International Conference… 16-17 November 2000 (London: Aslib, 2000); 7pp.  [PDF, 49KB]

(2000) Alan K.Melby: Sharing of translation memory databases from aligned parallel text [abstract]. In: Jean Véronis (ed.) Parallel text processing: alignment and use of translation corpora. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000; pp. 347-368.

Finite-state methods (see also Statistical analysis)

(2004) Francisco Casacuberta & Enrique Vidal: Machine translation with inferred stochastic finite-state transducers. Computational Linguistics 30 (2), pp. 205-224. [PDF, 501KB]

 (2004) F.Casacuberta, H.Ney, F.J.Och, E.Vidal, J.M.Vilar, S.Barrachina, I.Garcia-Varea, D.Llorens, C.Martinez, S.Molau, F.Nevado, M.Pastor, D.Picó, A.Sanchis, & C.Tilmann: Some approaches to statistical and finite-state speech-to-speech translation [abstract]. Computer Speech & Language 18 (1), Januray 2004; pp.25-47 [PDF, 17KB]

(2004) Jorge Civera, Elsa Cubel, Antonio L.Lagarda, David Picó, Jorge González, Enrique Vidal, Francisco Casacuberta, Juan M.Vilar, & Sergio Barrachina: From machine translation to computer-assisted translation using finite-state models.  EMNLP-2004: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 8pp. [PDF, 77KB]

(2004) Josep M.Crego, José B.Marino, & Adria de Gispert: Finite-state-based and phrase-based statistical machine translation. Interspeech 2004 – ICSLP 8th International  Conference on  Spoken Language Processing, Jeju Island, Korea, October 4-8, 2004; pp.37-40; abstract [PDF, 73KB]

(2004) Adriŕ de Gispert & José B. Marińo: TALP: Xgram-based spoken language translation system. International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign on Spoken Language Translation [IWSLT 2004], September 30 – October 1, 2004, Kyoto, Japan; pp. 85-90 [PDF, 175KB]

(2004) Hajime Tsukada & Masaaki Nagata: Efficient decoding for statistical machine translation with a fully expanded WFST model. EMNLP-2004: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 7pp. [PDF, 75KB]

(2003) Elsa Cubel, Jorge González, Antonio Lagarda, Francisco Casuberta, Alfons Juan & Enrique Vidal: Adapting finite-state translation to the TransType2 project Controlled language translation, EAMT-CLAW-03, Dublin City University, 15-17 May 2003 [PDF, 71KB]

(2003) Shankar Kumar & William Byrne: A weighted finite state transducer implementation of the alignment template model for statistical machine translation HLT-NAACL 2003: conference combining Human Language Technology conference series and the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics conference series,  May 27 – June 1,  2003, Edmonton, Canada; pp.63-70 [PDF, 141KB]

(2003) Shuly Wintner: Finite state technology and its applications to machine translation.  Tutorial at MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, September 2003 [PDF of presentation, 952KB]

(2002) Kemal Altintas & Ilyas Cicekli: A machine translation system between a pair of closely related languages. Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences (ISCIS 2002), Orlando, Florida, 2002 (CRC Press); pp.192-196.  [PDF, 204KB]

(2002) Rafael C.Carrasco & Mikel L.Forcada: Incremental construction and maintenance of minimal finite-state automata. Computational Linguistics 28 (2), pp. 207-216 [PDF, 103KB]

(2002) Paul C. Davis: Stone soup translation: the linked automata model. Ph D thesis, Ohio State University, 2002. 323pp. [PDF, 1078KB]

(2002) Mikel L. Forcada: Using multilingual content on the web to build fast finite-state direct translation systems. TMI-2002 conference, Keihanna, Japan, March 13-17, 2002: Workshop. [PDF, 155KB]

(2002) Adria de Gispert & José B.Marińo: Using x-grams for speech-to-speech translation. ICSLP 2002, Interspeech 2002:7th International Conference on  Spoken Language Processing, September 16-20, 2002, Denver, Colorado, USA; pp.1885-1888; abstract [PDF, 65KB]

(2001) Srinivas Bangalore & Giuseppe Riccardi: A finite-state approach to machine translation. [NAACL-2001] Language Technologies 2001: the Second meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 2-7 June 2001; 8pp. [PDF, 210KB]

(2001) Alberto Sanchis, David Picó, Joan Miquel del Val, Ferran Fabregat, Jesús Tomás, Moisés Pastor, Francisco Casacuberta & Enrique Vidal: A morphological analyser for machine translation based on finite-state transducers. MT Summit VIII: Machine Translation in the Information Age, Proceedings, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 18-22 September 2001; pp.305-309. [PDF, 48KB]

(2000) Hiyan Alshawi, Srinivas Bangalore, & Shona Douglas: Learning dependency translation models as collections of finite-state head transducers. Computational Linguistics 26 (1), pp.45-60 [PDF, 978KB]

(2000) Srinivas Bangalore & Giuseppe Riccardi: Stochastic finite-state models for spoken language machine translation; ANLP/NAACL 2000 workshop: Embedded machine translation systems, May 4, 2000, Seattle, Washington, [USA]; pp.52-59. [PDF, 638KB]

 (2000) Norbert Reithinger & Ralf Engel: Robust content extraction for translation and dialog processing. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.428-437 [abstract]

(2000) Stephan Vogel & Hermann Ney: Translation with cascaded finite state transducers. ACL-2000: 38th Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Hong Kong, October 2000. [PDF, 158KB]

Graphs

(2000) Bernd Kiefer, Hans-Ulrich Krieger, & Mark-Jan Nederhof: Efficient and robust parsing of word hypotheses graphs. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.280-295. [abstract]

Hidden Markov models

(2004) Hal Daumé III & Daniel Marcu: A phrase-based HMM approach to document/abstract alignment.  EMNLP-2004: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 8pp. [PDF, 111KB]

(2003) Kuniko Saito & Masaaki Nagata: Multi-language named-entity recognition system based on HMM. ACL 2003 Workshop on Multilingual and Mixed-language Named Entity Recognition, July 12, 2003, Sapporo, Japan; 8pp. [PDF, 353KB]

(2000) Jinxi Xu & Ralph Weischedel: Cross-lingual information retrieval using Hidden Markov models. EMNLP-2000: Joint SIGDAT Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora, 7-8 October 2000, Hong Kong; pp. 95-103 [PDF, 717KB]

(2000) Sung Young Jung, Sung Lim Hong, & Eunok Paek: An English to Korean transliteration model of extended Markov window Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July -4 August 2000; pp. 383-389 [PDF,.531KB]

HTML in MT

(2000) Gilles Sérasset & Christian Boitet: On UNL as the future "html of the linguistic content" & reuse of existing NLP components in UNL-related applications with the example of a UNL-French deconverter Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July -4 August 2000; pp. 768-774 [PDF, 562KB]

Lattices and networks

(2004) Tanja Schultz, Szu-Chen Jou, Stephan Vogel, & Shirin Saleem: Using word lattice information for a tighter coupling in speech translation systems. Interspeech 2004 – ICSLP 8th International  Conference on  Spoken Language Processing, Jeju Island, Korea, October 4-8, 2004; pp.41-44; abstract [PDF, 61KB]

(2000) Bernd Kiefer, Hans-Ulrich Krieger, & Mark-Jan Nederhof: Efficient and robust parsing of word hypotheses graphs. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.280-295. [abstract]

Learning and training

(2004) Chris Callison-Burch, Colin Bannard, & Josh Schroeder: Improving statistical translation through editing 9th EAMT Workshop, "Broadening horizons of machine translation and its applications", 26-27 April 2004, Malta; pp.26-32. [PDF, 227KB]

(2004) Yuan Ding & Martha Palmer: Automatic learning of parallel dependency treelet pairs. First International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, Hainan Island, China, March 22-24, 2004; pp.233-243. [abstract]

(2004) Ariadna Font Llitjós & Jaime Carbonell: The translation correction tool: English-Spanish user studies. LREC-2004: Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Proceedings, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-28 May 2004; pp.347-350. [PDF, 606KB]

(2004) Ariadna Font Llitjós, Katharina Probst, & Jaime Carbonell: Error analysis of two types of grammar for the purpose of automatic rule refinement. Machine translation: from real users to research: 6th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2004, Washington, DC, September 28 – October 2, 2004; ed. Robert E.Frederking and Kathryn B.Taylor (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2004); pp. 187-196. [go to publisher details]

(2004) Christopher B. Quirk: Training a sentence-level machine translation confidence measure.  LREC-2004: Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Proceedings, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-28 May 2004; pp.825-828. [PDF, 243KB]

(2004) Fei Xia & Michael McCord: Improving a statistical MT system with automatically learned rewrite patterns. Coling 2004: 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 23-27 August 2004, University of Geneva, Switzerland, Proceedings; 7pp. [PDF, 1055KB]

(2003) Tantely Andriamanankasina, Kenji Araki & Koji Tochinai: EBMT of POS-tagged sentences by recursive division via inductive learning. In: Michael Carl & Andy Way (eds.) Recent advances in example-based machine translation (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 225-252.

(2003) Ralf D. Brown: Clustered transfer rule induction for example-based translation. In: Michael Carl & Andy Way (eds.) Recent advances in example-based machine translation (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 287-305.

(2003) Michael Carl: Inducing translation grammars from bracketed alignments. In: Michael Carl & Andy Way (eds.) Recent advances in example-based machine translation (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 339-361.

(2003) Ilyas Cicekli & H.Altay Güvenir: Learning translation templates from bilingual translation examples. In: Michael Carl & Andy Way (eds.) Recent advances in example-based machine translation (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp.255-286.

(2003) Jason Eisner: Learning non-isomorphic tree mappings for machine translation ACL-2003: 41st Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, July 7-12, 2003, Sapporo, Japan. [PDF, 89KB]

(2003) Kevin McTait: Translation patterns, linguistic knowledge and complexity in an approach to EBMT. In: Michael Carl & Andy Way (eds.) Recent advances in example-based machine translation (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003), pp. 307-338.

(2003) Fatiha Sadat, Masatoshi Yoshikawa, & Shunsuke Uemura: Learning bilingual translations from comparable corpora to cross-language information retrieval: hybrid ststistics-based and linguistics-based approach IRAL 2003: Sixth International Workshop on Information Retrieval with Asian Languages,  July 7,  2003, Sapporo, Japan; 8pp. [PDF, 122KB]

(2003) Franz Josef Och: Minimum error rate training in statistical machine translation ACL-2003: 41st Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, July 7-12, 2003, Sapporo, Japan. [PDF, 117KB]

(2003) Katharina Probst: Using ‘smart’ bilingual projection to feature-tag a monolingual dictionary HLT-NAACL 2003: proceedings of Seventh Conference on Natural Language Learning,  May 27 – June 1,  2003, Edmonton, Canada; 8pp. [PDF, 108KB]

(2003) Martine Smets, Michael Gamon, Simon Corston-Oliver & Eric Ringger: The adaptation of a machine-learned sentence realization system to French. EACL 2003: 10th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, April 12-17, 2003, Budapest, Hungary. Proceedings; pp.323-330 [PDF, 373KB]

(2003) Kaoru Yamamoto, Taku Kudo, Yuta Tsuboi, & Yuji Matsumoto: Learning sequence-to-sequence correspondences from parallel corpora via sequential pattern mining HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop, "Building and using parallel texts: data driven machine translation and beyond", 31 May 2003, Edmonton, Canada. [PDF, 101KB]

(2002) Prachya Boonkwan & Asanee Kawtrakul: Plaesarn: machine-aided translation tool for English-to-Thai; Coling-2002 workshop "Machine translation in Asia", 1 September 2002, Taipei,Taiwan ; 7pp. [PDF, 218KB]

(2002) Jaime Carbonell, Katharina Probst, Erik Peterson, Christian Monson, Alon Lavie, Ralf Brown, & Lori Levin: Automatic rule learning for resource-limited MT. Machine translation: from research to real users: 5th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2002, Tiburon, CA, October 2002; ed. Stephen D. Richardson (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002); pp. 1-10. [go to publisher details]

(2002) Paisarn Charoenpornsawat, Virach Sornlertlamvanich & Thatsanee Charoenporn: Improving translation quality of rule-based machine translation; Coling-2002 workshop "Machine translation in Asia", 1 September 2002, Taipei,Taiwan; 6pp. [PDF, 355KB]

(2002) Thomas C.Chuang, G.N.You, & Jason Chang: Adaptive bilingual sentence alignment. Machine translation: from research to real users: 5th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2002, Tiburon, CA, October 2002; ed. Stephen D. Richardson (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002); pp. 21-30. [go to publisher details]

(2002) Dien Dinh: Building a training corpus for word sense disambiguation in English-to-Vietnamese machine translation; Coling-2002 workshop "Machine translation in Asia", 1 September 2002, Taipei,Taiwan; 7pp. [PDF, 281KB]

(2002) Philipp Koehn & Kevin Knight: Learning a translation lexicon from monolingual corpora. Unsupervised Lexical Acquisition: Proceedings of the Workshop of the ACL Special Interest Group on the Lexicon (SIGLEX), July 2002, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,USA; pp.9-16 [PDF, 187KB]

(2002) Benoit Lavoie, Michael White, & Tanya Korelsky: Learning domain-specific transfer rules: an experiment with Korean to English translation; Coling-2002 workshop "Machine translation in Asia", 1 September 2002, Taipei,Taiwan; 7pp. [PDF, 43KB]

(2002) Hyo-Kyung Lee: Classification approach to word selection in machine translation. Machine translation: from research to real users: 5th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2002, Tiburon, CA, October 2002; ed. Stephen D. Richardson (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002); pp. 114-123. [go to publisher details]

(2002) Daniel Marcu & William Wong: A phrase based, joint probability model for statistical machine translation. EMNLP-2002: Proceedings of the 2002 conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, July 2002, Philadelphia, USA; pp.133-139 [PDF, 71KB]

(2002) Arul Menezes: Better contextual translation using machine learning. Machine translation: from research to real users: 5th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2002, Tiburon, CA, October 2002; ed. Stephen D. Richardson (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002); pp. 124-134. [go to publisher details]

(2002) Koji Murakami, Makoto Hiroshige,Kenji Araki, & Koji Tochinai: Evaluation for direct speech translation method using inductive learning for conversations in the travel domain; ACL-2002 workshop "Speech-to-speech translation",11 July 2002, Philadelphia, USA; pp. 45-52 [PDF, 665KB]

(2002) Masaki Murata, Masao Utiyama, Kiyotaka Uchimoto, Qing Ma and Hitoshi Isahara: Correction of errors in a modality corpus used for machine translation using machine-learning. TMI-2002 conference, Keihanna, Japan, March 13-17, 2002; pp.125-134. [PDF, 106KB]

(2002) Bowen Zhou, Yuqing Gao, Jeffrey Sorensen, Zijian Diao, & Michael Picheny: Statistical natural language generation for speech-to-speech machine translation systems.  ICSLP 2002, Interspeech 2002:7th International Conference on  Spoken Language Processing, September 16-20, 2002, Denver, Colorado, USA; pp.1897-1900; abstract [PDF, 54KB]

(2001) Christian Boitet: Four technical and organizational keys to handle more languages and improve quality (on demand) in MT. MT Summit VIII, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 18-22 September 2001. Towards a Road Map for MT [PDF, 48KB]

(2001) Ilyas Cicekli & H.Altay Güveniri: Learning translation templates from bilingual translation examples. Applied Intelligence, vol.15, no.1; pp.57-76.  [PDF, 251KB]

(2001) Simon Corston-Oliver, Michael Gamon, & Chris Brockett: A machine learning approach to the automatic evaluation of machine translation ACL-EACL-2001: 39th Annual meeting [of the Association for Computational Linguistics] and 10th Conference of the European Chapter [of ACL], July 9th - 11th 2001, Toulouse, France; pp.140-147. [PDF, 87KB]

(2001) Robert C.Moore: Towards a simple and accurate statistical approach to learning translation relationhips among words. ACL-EACL 2001 workshop "Data-driven machine translation", July 7, 2001, Toulouse, France; pp.79-86. [PDF, 55KB]

(2001) Masaki Murata, Kiyotaka Uchimoto, Qing Ma, & Hitoshi Isahara: Using a support-vector machine for Japanese-to-English translation of tense, aspect, and modality. ACL-EACL 2001 workshop "Data-driven machine translation", July 7, 2001, Toulouse, France; pp.111-119. [PDF, 230KB]

(2000) Hiyan Alshawi, Srinivas Bangalore, & Shona Douglas: Learning dependency translation models as collections of finite-state head transducers. Computational Linguistics 26 (1), pp.45-60 [PDF, 978KB]

(2000) Hiroshi Echizen-ya, Kenji Araki, Yoshio Momouchi, & Koji Tochinai: Effectiveness of layering translation rules based on transition networks in machine translation using inductive learning with genetic algorithms. MT2000: machine translation and multilingual applications in the new millennium: international conference at the University of Exeter, 20-22 November 2000, organised by the British Computer Society. [London: BCS]; 8pp. [PDF, 1596KB]

(2000) Douglas A.Jones & Gregory M.Rusk: Toward a scoring function for quality-driven machine translation Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July -4 August 2000; pp. 376-382 [PDF,644KB]

(2000) Byung-Ju Kang & Key-Sun Choi: Automatic transliteration and back-transliteration by decision tree learning. LREC-2000: Second International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Proceedings, Athens, Greece, 31 May – 2 June 2000; pp. 1135-1141. [PDF, 115KB]

(2000) Christos Malavazos & Stelios Piperidis: Application of analogical modeling to example-based machine translation. Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July – 4 August  2000; pp.516-522. [PDF, 665KB]

(2000) António Ribeiro, Gabriel Lopes, & Joăo Mexia: A self-learning method of parallel texts alignment. Envisioning machine translation in the information future: 4th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2000, Cuernavaca,Mexico, October 2000; ed. John S. White (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2000); pp.30-39. [go to publisher details]

(2000) Dan Tidhar & Uwe Küssner: Learning to select a good translation Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July -4 August 2000; pp. 843-849 [PDF,.659KB]

Maximum entropy methods

(2004) Donghui Feng, Yajuan Lv, & Ming Zhou: A new approach for English-Chinese named entity alignment. EMNLP-2004: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 8pp. [PDF, 207KB]

(2004) Dragos Stefan Munteanu, Alexander Fraser, & Daniel Marcu: Improved machine translation performance via parallel sentence extraction from comparable corpora.  HLT-NAACL 2004: Human Language Technology conference and North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics annual meeting, May 2-7, 2004, The Park Plaza Hotel, Boston, USA; pp. 265-272. [PDF, 1125KB]

(2003) Oliver Bender, Franz Josef Och & Hermann Ney: Maximum entropy models for named entity recognition. HLT-NAACL 2003: proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2003), Edmonton, Canada, May 31 – June 1, 2003; 4pp. [PDF, 73KB]

(2003) Isao Goto, Naoto Kato, Noriyoshi Uratani & Terumasa Ehara: Transliteration considering context information based on the maximum entropy method MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, 23-27 September 2003 [PDF, 270KB]

(2003) Akio Kobayashi, Franz J.Och, & Hermann Ney: Named entity extraction from Japanese broadcast news. Eurospeech 2003 - Interspeech 2003 8th European  Conference on  Speech Communication and Technology, Geneva, Switzerland, September 1-4, 2003; pp.1125-1128; abstract [PDF, 33KB]

(2002) Ismael García Varea, Franz J. Och, Hermann Ney & Francisco Casacuberta: Improving alignment quality in statistical machine translation using context-dependent maximum entropy models. Coling 2002, Taipei, Taiwan, 26-30 August 2002 [PDF, 208KB]

(2002) Ismael Garcia Varea, Franz J.Och, Hermann Ney, & Francisco Casacuberta: Efficient integration of maximum entropy lexicon models within the training of statistical alignment models. Machine translation: from research to real users: 5th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2002, Tiburon, CA, October 2002; ed. Stephen D. Richardson (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002); pp. 54-63. [go to publisher details]

(2002) Franz Josef Och & Hermann Ney: Discriminative training and maximum entropy models for statistical machine translation. ACL-2002: 40th Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Philadelphia, July 2002; pp.295-302. [PDF, 152KB]

(2002) Bowen Zhou, Yuqing Gao, Jeffrey Sorensen, Zijian Diao, & Michael Picheny: Statistical natural language generation for speech-to-speech machine translation systems.  ICSLP 2002, Interspeech 2002:7th International Conference on  Spoken Language Processing, September 16-20, 2002, Denver, Colorado, USA; pp.1897-1900; abstract [PDF, 54KB]

(2001) Ismael García-Varea, Franz J. Och, Hermann Ney, & Francisco Casacuberta: Refined lexicon models for statistical machine translation using a maximum entropy approach ACL-EACL-2001: 39th Annual meeting [of the Association for Computational Linguistics] and 10th Conference of the European Chapter [of ACL], July 9th - 11th 2001, Toulouse, France; pp.204-211. [PDF, 72KB]

(2001) Seonho Kim, Juntae Yoon, & Mansuk Song: Improving lexical mapping model of English-Korean bitext using structural features. EMNLP-2001: Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing conference, 2-7 June 2001, Cornell University; 8pp.  [PDF, 261KB].

(2000) George Foster: A maximum entropy/minimum divergence translation model. ACL-2000: 38th Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Hong Kong, October 2000. [PDF, 189KB]

(2000) George Foster: Incorporating position information into a maximum entropy / minimum divergence translation model. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning and of the Second Learning Language in Logic Workshop, 13-14 September 2000, Lisbon, Portugal; pp. 37-42 [PDF, 511KB]

 (2000) Jochen Peters & Dietrich Klakow: Capturing long range correlations using log-linear language models. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.79-94. [abstract]

Modularity (see also Customization and implementation)

(2001) Ulrike Bernardi, Petra Gieselmann & Steve McLaughlin: A taste of MALT . MT Summit VIII: Machine Translation in the Information Age, Proceedings, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 18-22 September 2001; pp. 43-48. [PDF, 187KB]

Natural language understanding

(2001) Srinivasan Vaidyaraman: Word sense disambiguation through visual thought analysis. International Journal of Translation 13 (1-2), Jan-Dec 2001; pp.147-158. [PDF, 52KB]

Neural networks

(2002) You-Jin Chung, Sin-Jae Kang, Kyong-Hi Moon, & Jong-Hyeok Lee: Word sense disambiguation in a Korean-to-Japanese MT system using neural networks; Coling-2002 workshop "Machine translation in Asia", 1 September 2002, Taipei,Taiwan; 7pp. [PDF, 497KB]

(2000) Bud Scott: The Logos model as a metaphorical biological neural net. [Logos Institute, 2000]; 16pp. [PDF, 120KB]

Programming and algorithms [see also Computer equipment and accessories, Dynamic programming, Parallel processing]

(2004) Youngjik Lee, Jun Park, & Seung-Shin Oh: Usability considerations of speech-to-speech translation system. Interspeech 2004 – ICSLP 8th International  Conference on  Spoken Language Processing, Jeju Island, Korea, October 4-8, 2004; pp.369-372; abstract [PDF, 58KB]

(2004) Gilles Sérasset: A generic collaborative platform for multilingual lexical database development.  Coling 2004: Proceedings of the Workshop on Multilingual Linguistic Resources (MLR2004), August 28th 2004, University of Geneva, Switzerland; pp.79-86. [PDF, 503KB]

(2004) Raghavendra Udupa U, Tanveer A. Faruquie, & Hemanta K.Maji: An algorithmic framework for the decoding problem in statistical machine translation. Coling 2004: 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 23-27 August 2004, University of Geneva, Switzerland, Proceedings; 7pp. [PDF, 138KB]

(2003) Yuqing Gao: Coupling vs. unifying: modeling techniques for speech-to-speech translation. Eurospeech 2003 - Interspeech 2003 8th European  Conference on  Speech Communication and Technology, Geneva, Switzerland, September 1-4, 2003; pp.365-368; abstract [PDF, 33KB]

(2003) Ulrich Germann: Greedy decoding for statistical machine translation in almost linear time HLT-NAACL 2003: conference combining Human Language Technology conference series and the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics conference series,  May 27 – June 1,  2003, Edmonton, Canada; 8pp. [PDF, 158KB]

(2002) Rafael C.Carrasco & Mikel L.Forcada: Incremental construction and maintenance of minimal finite-state automata. Computational Linguistics 28 (2), pp. 207-216 [PDF, 103KB]

(2002) Adriana Gomes Alves, Hugo Cesar Hoeschl, & Andre Bortolon: Object oriented modelling applied to UNL. ICUKL-2002: International Conference on Universal Knowledge and Language, 25th-29th November 2002, Goa, India, organised by UNDL Foundation and Indian Institute of  Technology Bombay; 7pp. [PDF, 569KB]

(2002) Hisami Suzuki: A development environment for large-scale multi-lingual parsing systems.  Coling-2002: Workshop on Grammar Engineering and Evaluation, August 2002, Taipei, Taiwan; 7pp. [PDF, 83KB]

(2002) Taro Watanabe & Eiichiro Sumita: Statistical machine translation decoder based on phrase. ICSLP 2002, Interspeech 2002:7th International Conference on  Spoken Language Processing, September 16-20, 2002, Denver, Colorado, USA; pp.1889-1902; abstract [PDF, 47KB]

(2001) Ilyas Cicekli: A specific least general generalization of strings and its application to example-based machine translation. Proceedings of the 10th Turkish Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks (TAINN 2001), North Cyprus, June 2001; pp.228-237.  [PDF, 138KB]

(2000) Tilman Becker & Patrice Lopez: The application of HPSG-to-TAG compilation techniques. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.497-506. [abstract]

(2000) Antony F.R.Brown: Machine translation: just a question of finding the right programming language? In: W.John Hutchins (ed.) Early years in machine translation: memoirs and biographies of pioneers (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000); pp.129-134.

(2000) Ulrich Callmeier, Ann Copestake, Dan Flickinger, Rob Malouf, & Stephan Oepen: Scalable grammar software for computational linguists: building, testing, and running grammars large and small. ACL-2000: 38th Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Hong Kong. Demonstration notes, 3-6 October 2000; pp.38-39 [PDF, 175KB]

(2000) Hitoshi Isahara & Masahiko Haruno: Japanese-English aligned bilingual corpora [abstract]. In: Jean Véronis (ed.) Parallel text processing: alignment and use of translation corpora. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000; pp. 313-334.

(2000) Bernd Kiefer, Hans-Ulrich Krieger, & Mark-Jan Nederhof: Efficient and robust parsing of word hypotheses graphs. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.280-295. [abstract]

(2000) Andreas Klüter, Alassane Ndiaye & Heinz Kirchmann: Verbmobil from a software engineering point of view: system design and software integration. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.635-658. [abstract]

Robustness

(2004) Nano Gough & Andy Way: Robust large-scale EBMT with marker-based segmentation; TMI-2004: proceedings of the Tenth Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation, October 4-6, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; pp.95-104. [PDF, 94KB]

(2004) Declan Groves, Mary Hearne, & Andy Way: Robust sub-sentential alignment of phrase-structure trees. Coling 2004: 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 23-27 August 2004, University of Geneva, Switzerland, Proceedings; 7pp. [PDF, 94KB]

(2004) Gábor Hodász, Tamás Gröbler, & Balázs Kis: Translation memory as a robust example-based translation system 9th EAMT Workshop, "Broadening horizons of machine translation and its applications", 26-27 April 2004, Malta; pp.82-89. [PDF, 227KB]

(2004) Gábor Prószéky, László Tihanyi, & Gábor Ugray: Moose: a robust high-performance parser and generator 9th EAMT Workshop, "Broadening horizons of machine translation and its applications", 26-27 April 2004, Malta; pp. 138-142. [PDF, 179KB]

 (2004) Ace Sarich, Jim Bass, & Horacio Franco: Development and fielding of the Phraselator® phrase translation system. Translating and the Computer 26: proceedings of the Twenty-sixth International Conference on Translating and the Computer, 18-19 November 2004, London. (London: Aslib, 2004); 13pp. [PDF, 168KB]

(2003) Fu-Hua Liu, Yuqing Gao, Liang Gu, & Michael Picheny: Noise robustness in speech to speech translation.  Eurospeech 2003 - Interspeech 2003 8th European  Conference on  Speech Communication and Technology, Geneva, Switzerland, September 1-4, 2003; pp.2797-2800; abstract [PDF, 34KB]

 (2003) X.Piotrowska, R.Piotrowski, & Y.Romanov: Robustness in the linguistic automaton. International Journal of Translation 15 (1), Jan-June 2003; pp.81-86. [PDF, 64KB]

(2002) Tz-Liang Kueng & Keh-Yih Su: A robust cross-style bilingual sentences alignment model. Coling 2002, Taipei, Taiwan, 26-30 August 2002 [PDF, 290KB]

(2001) F.Jelinek, W.Byrne, S.Khudanpur, B.Hladká, H.Ney, F.J.Och, J.Cuřin, J.Psutka: Robust knowledge discovery from parallel speech and text sources. HLT-2001: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Human Language Technology Research, San Diego, CA, March 18-21, 2001; 3pp. [PDF, 44KB]

(2001) David Yarowsky, Grace Ngai, & Richard Wicentowski: Inducing multilingual text analysis tools via robust projection across aligned corpora.  HLT-2001: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Human Language Technology Research, San Diego, CA, March 18-21, 2001; 4pp. [PDF, 161KB]

 (2000) Udo Haiber, Helmut Mangold, Thilo Pfau, Peter Regel-Brietzmann, Günther Ruske,&  Volker Schleß: Robust recognition of spontaneous speech . In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.46-62. [abstract]

 (2000) Erhard W. Hinrichs, Sandra Kübler, Valia Kordoni, & Frank H. Müller: Robust chunk parsing for spontaneous speech. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.163-182. [abstract]

 (2000) Bernd Kiefer, Hans-Ulrich Krieger, & Mark-Jan Nederhof: Efficient and robust parsing of word hypotheses graphs. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.280-295. [abstract]

 (2000) Manfred Pinkal, C.J. Rupp, & Karsten Worm: Robust semantic processing of spoken language. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp. 321-335. [abstract]

 (2000) Norbert Reithinger & Ralf Engel: Robust content extraction for translation and dialog processing. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.428-437 [abstract]

(2000) Hristo Tanev & Ruslan Mitkov: LINGUA – a robust architecture for text processing and anaphora resolution in Bulgarian. MT2000: machine translation and multilingual applications in the new millennium: international conference at the University of Exeter, 20-22 November 2000, organised by the British Computer Society. [London: BCS]; 8pp. [PDF, 1780KB]

SGML

(2000) Caroline Brun, Marc Dymetman, & Veronika Lux: Document structure and multilingual authoring. INLG’2000 : Proceedings of the First International Conference on Natural Language Generation, Mitzpe Ramon, Israel, 12-16 June 2000; pp.24-31. [PDF, 729KB]

(2000) Arantza Casillas, Joseba Abaitua, & Raquel Martínez: Recycling annotated parallel corpora for bilingual document composition. Envisioning machine translation in the information future: 4th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2000, Cuernavaca,Mexico, October 2000; ed. John S. White (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2000); pp.117-126. [go to publisher details]

 (2000) Laurent Romary & Patrice Bonhomme: Parallel alignment of structured documents [abstract]. In: Jean Véronis (ed.) Parallel text processing: alignment and use of translation corpora. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000; pp. 201-217.

Statistical analysis (see also Finite-state methods, Hidden Markov models)

(2004) Bogdan Babych & Anthony Hartley: Extending the BLEU MT evaluation method with frequency weightings.  ACL 2004: 42nd annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 21-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; pp. 621-628. [PDF, 132KB]

(2004) Indrajit Bhattacharya, Lise Getoor, & Yoshua Bengio: Unsupervised sense disambiguation using bilingual probabilistic models.  ACL 2004: 42nd annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 21-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; pp. 287-294. [PDF, 166KB]

(2004) Ralf D. Brown: A modified Burrows-Wheeler transform for highly scalable example-based translation. Machine translation: from real users to research: 6th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2004, Washington, DC, September 28 – October 2, 2004; ed. Robert E.Frederking and Kathryn B.Taylor (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2004); pp. 27-36. [go to publisher details]

(2004) Francisco Casacuberta & Enrique Vidal: Machine translation with inferred stochastic finite-state transducers. Computational Linguistics 30 (2), pp. 205-224. [PDF, 501KB]

(2004) Wei Gao, Kam-Fai Wong & Wai Lam: Phoneme-based transliteration of foreign names for OOV problem. First International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, Hainan Island, China, March 22-24, 2004; pp.110-119. [abstract]

(2004) Liang Gu & Yuqing Gao: On feature selection in maximum entropy approach to statistical concept-based speech-to-speech translation. International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign on Spoken Language Translation [IWSLT 2004], September 30 – October 1, 2004, Kyoto, Japan; pp. 115-121 [PDF, 213KB]

(2004) Martin Kay: Arabic script-based languages deserve to be studied linguistically. Coling 2004: Workshop on Computational Approaches to Arabic Script-based Languages, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, August 28, 2004; 1pp. [PDF, 13KB]

(2004) Philipp Koehn: Statistical significance tests for machine translation evaluation. EMNLP-2004: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 8pp. [PDF, 137KB]

(2004) Chun-Jen Lee, Jason S. Chang, & Thomas C. Chuang: Alignment of bilingual named entities in parallel corpora using statistical model. Machine translation: from real users to research: 6th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2004, Washington, DC, September 28 – October 2, 2004; ed. Robert E.Frederking and Kathryn B.Taylor (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2004); pp. 144-153. [go to publisher details]

(2004) Li Haizhou, Zhang Min, & Su Jian: A joint source-channel model for machine translation. ACL 2004: 42nd annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 21-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; pp.159-166. [PDF, 228KB]

(2004) Tayebeh Mosavi Miangah & Ali Delavar Khalafi: Statistical analysis of target language corpus for word sense disambiguation in a machine translation system 9th EAMT Workshop, "Broadening horizons of machine translation and its applications", 26-27 April 2004, Malta; pp. 129-137.[PDF, 151KB]

(2004) Satoshi Nakamura, Konstantin Markov, Takatoshi Jitsuhiro, Jin-Song Zhang, Hirofumi Yamamoto & Genichiro Kikui: Multi-lingual speech recognition system for speech-to-speech translation. International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation: Evaluation Campaign on Spoken Language Translation [IWSLT 2004], September 30 – October 1, 2004, Kyoto, Japan; pp. 146-154 [PDF, 181KB]

(2004) Francisco Nevado, Francisco Casacuberta, & Josu Landa: Translation memories enrichment by statistical bilingual segmentation. LREC-2004: Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Proceedings, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-28 May 2004; pp.335-338. [PDF, 354KB]

(2004) Hermann Ney, Maja Popović, & David Sündermann: Error measures and Bayes decision rules revisited with applications to POS tagging.  EMNLP-2004: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 7pp. [PDF, 72KB]

(2004) Eric Ringger, Michael Gamon, Robert C.Moore, David Rojas, Martine Smets, & Simon Corston-Oliver: Linguistically informed statistical models of constituent structure for ordering in sentence realization.  Coling 2004: 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 23-27 August 2004, University of Geneva, Switzerland, Proceedings; 7pp. [PDF, 116KB]

(2004) David A.Smith & Noah A.Smith: Bilingual parsing with factored estimation: using English to parse Korean. [EMNLP 2004] Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 8pp. [PDF, 90KB]

(2004) Bing Zhao, Stephan Vogel, & Alex Waibel: Phrase pair rescoring with term weightings for statistical machine translation. EMNLP-2004: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 8pp. [PDF, 195KB]

(2003) Eiji Aramaki, Sadao Kurohashi, Hideki Kashioka, & Hideki Tanaka: Word selection for EBMT based on monolingual similarity and translation confidence HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop, "Building and using parallel texts: data driven machine translation and beyond", 31 May 2003, Edmonton, Canada. [PDF, 1565KB]

(2003) Ralf D. Brown, Rebecca Hutchinson, Paul N. Bennett, Jaime G. Carbonell, & Peter Jansen: Reducing boundary friction using translation-fragment overlap MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, 23-27 September 2003 [PDF, 117KB]

(2003) Yuan Ding, Daniel Gildea, & Martha Palmer: An algorithm for word-level alignment of parallel dependency trees MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, 23-27 September 2003 [PDF, 242KB]

(2003) Hiroshi Echizen-ya, Kenji Araki, Yoshio Momouchi, & Koji Tochinai: Effectiveness of automatic extraction of bilingual collocations using recursive chain-link-type learning MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, 23-27 September 2003 [PDF, 687KB]

(2003) Jason Eisner: Learning non-isomorphic tree mappings for machine translation ACL-2003: 41st Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, July 7-12, 2003, Sapporo, Japan. [PDF, 89KB]

(2003) Sisay Fissaha & Johann Haller: Application of corpus-based techniques to Amharic texts. MT Summit IX -- workshop: Machine translation for semitic languages, New Orleans, USA, 23 September 2003 [PDF, 430KB]

(2003) Daniel Gildea: Loosely tree-based alignment for machine translation ACL-2003: 41st Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, July 7-12, 2003, Sapporo, Japan. [PDF, 109KB]

(2003) Isao Goto, Naoto Kato, Noriyoshi Uratani & Terumasa Ehara: Transliteration considering context information based on the maximum entropy method MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, 23-27 September 2003 [PDF, 270KB]

(2003) Jin-Xia Huang, Wei Wang, & Ming Zhou: A unified statistical model for generalized translation memory system MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, 23-27 September 2003 [PDF, 544KB]

(2003) Francisco Nevado, Francisco Casacuberta, & Enrique Vidal: Parallel corpora segmentation using anchor words. 7th EAMT Workshop, "Improving machine translation through other language technology tools", 13 April 2003, Budapest, Hungary; pp. 33-40 [PDF, 382KB]

(2003) Tadashi Nomoto: Predictive models of performance in multi-engine machine translation MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, 23-27 September 2003; pp.269-276. [PDF, 113KB]

(2003) Franz Josef Och & Hermann Ney: A systematic comparison of various statistical alignment models. Computational Linguistics 29 (1), pp.19-51 [PDF, 296KB]

(2003) Katharina Probst: Using ‘smart’ bilingual projection to feature-tag a monolingual dictionary HLT-NAACL 2003: proceedings of Seventh Conference on Natural Language Learning,  May 27 – June 1,  2003, Edmonton, Canada; 8pp. [PDF, 108KB]

(2003) Reinhard Rapp: Word sense discovery based on sense descriptor dissimilarity MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, 23-27 September 2003; pp.315-322. [PDF, 156KB]

(2003) Andy Way & Nano Gough: Teaching and assessing empirical approaches to machine translation. MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, Workshop on Teaching Translation Technologies and Tools, 27 September 2003. [PDF, 34KB]

(2003) Bing Zhao, Klaus Zechner, Stephen Vogel, & Alex Waibel: Efficient optimization for bilingual sentence alignment based on linear regression HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop, "Building and using parallel texts: data driven machine translation and beyond", 31 May 2003, Edmonton, Canada. [PDF, 93KB]

(2002) Yaser Al-Onaizan & Kevin Knight: Named entity translation. HLT 2002: Human Language Technology Conference: proceedings of the second international conference on human language technology research, March 24-27, 2002, San Diego, California; ed. Mitchell Marcus [San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann for DARPA]; pp. 122-124. Extended abstract. [PDF, 148KB]

(2002) Francisco Casacuberta, Enrique Vidal, & Juan Miguel Vilar: Architectures for speech-to-speech translation; ACL-2002 workshop "Speech-to-speech translation",11 July 2002, Philadelphia, USA; pp.39-44 [PDF, 114KB]

(2002) Ralf Brown: Corpus-driven splitting of compound words. TMI-2002 conference, Keihanna, Japan, March 13-17, 2002. [PDF, 95KB]

(2002) Yun-Chuang Chiao & Pierre Zweigenbaum: Looking for candidate translational equivalents in specialized, comparable corpora. Coling 2002, Taipei, Taiwan, 26-30 August 2002 [PDF, 82KB]

(2002) Alicia Garrido-Alenda, Mikel L. Forcada and Rafael C. Carrasco: Incremental construction and maintenance of morphological analysers based on augmented letter transducers TMI-2002 conference, Keihanna, Japan, March 13-17, 2002. [PDF, 171KB]

(2002) Joshua Goodman: The state of the art in language modeling.  Tutorial notes, at AMTA 2002: Fifth biennial conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, October 9, 2002, Tiburon, California, USA [PDF of PPT presentation, 983KB]

(2002) Nizar Habash & Bonnie Dorr: Handling translation divergences: combining statistical and symbolic techniques in generation-heavy machine translation. Machine translation: from research to real users: 5th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2002, Tiburon, CA, October 2002; ed. Stephen D. Richardson (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002); pp. 84-93. [go to publisher details]

(2002) Hiroshi Kanayama: An iterative algorithm for translation acquisition of adpositions. TMI-2002 conference, Keihanna, Japan, March 13-17, 2002; pp.85-95. [PDF, 268KB]

(2002) P.Majumder, M.Mitra, & B.B.Chaudhuri: N-gram: a language indendent approach to IR and NLP. ICUKL-2002: International Conference on Universal Knowledge and Language, 25th-29th November 2002, Goa, India, organised by UNDL Foundation and Indian Institute of  Technology Bombay; 7pp. [PDF, 73KB]

(2002) Jessie Pinkham & Martine Smets: Modular MT with a learned bilingual dictionary: rapid deployment of a new language pair. Coling 2002, Taipei, Taiwan, 26-30 August 2002 [PDF, 59KB]

(2002) Mitsuo Shimohata & Eiichiro Sumita: Identifying synonymous expressions from a bilingual corpus for example-based machine translation; Coling-2002 workshop "Machine translation in Asia", July 2002, Philadelphia, USA; 6pp. [PDF, 1324KB]

(2002) Setsuo Yamada, Kenji Imamura and Kazuhide Yamamoto: Corpus-assisted expansion of manual MT knowledge. TMI-2002 conference, Keihanna, Japan, March 13-17, 2002; pp.198-208. [PDF, 111KB]

(2002) Jianmin Yao, Hao Yu, Tiejun Zhao, & Xiaohong Li: Automatic information transfer between English and Chinese; Coling-2002 workshop "Machine translation in Asia", 1 September 2002, Taipei,Taiwan; 4pp. [PDF, 186KB]

(2001) Mark-Jan Nederhof: Approximating context-free by rational transduction for example-based MT. ACL-EACL 2001 workshop "Data-driven machine translation", July 7, 2001, Toulouse, France; pp.25-32. [PDF, 96KB]

(2001) Federico Prat: Machine translation with grammar association: some improvements and the Loco_C model. ACL-EACL 2001 workshop "Data-driven machine translation", July 7, 2001, Toulouse, France; pp.71-78. [PDF, 89KB]

(2001) Alberto Sanchis, David Picó, Joan Miquel del Val, Ferran Fabregat, Jesús Tomás, Moisés Pastor, Francisco Casacuberta & Enrique Vidal: A morphological analyser for machine translation based on finite-state transducers. MT Summit VIII: Machine Translation in the Information Age, Proceedings, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 18-22 September 2001; pp.305-309. [PDF, 48KB]

(2001) Daniel J. Walker, David E. Clements, Maki Darwin and Jan W. Amtrup: Sentence boundary detection: a comparison of paradigms for improving MT quality. MT Summit VIII: Machine Translation in the Information Age, Proceedings, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 18-22 September 2001; pp. 369-372. [PDF, 181KB]

(2000) Hiyan Alshawi, Srinivas Bangalore, & Shona Douglas: Learning dependency translation models as collections of finite-state head transducers. Computational Linguistics 26 (1), pp.45-60 [PDF, 978KB]

(2000) Srinivas Bangalore & Giuseppe Riccardi: Stochastic finite-state models for spoken language machine translation; ANLP/NAACL 2000 workshop: Embedded machine translation systems, May 4, 2000, Seattle, Washington, [USA]; pp.52-59. [PDF, 638KB]

 (2000) Hans Ulrich Block & Tobias Ruland: Integrated shallow linguistic processing, In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.143-146. [abstract]

(2000) Ralf D.Brown: Automated generalization of translation examples Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July -4 August 2000; pp. 125-131 [PDF,.650KB]

(2000) Gael Dias, Sylvie Guilloré & José Gabriel Pereira Lopes: Extracting textual associations in part-of-speech tagged corpora. Fifth EAMT Workshop "Harvesting existing resources", May 11 - 12, 2000, Ljubljana, Slovenia. [PDF, 99KB]

 (2000) Pascale Fung: A statistical view on bilingual lexicon extraction: from parallel corpora to non-parallel corpora [abstract]. In: Jean Véronis (ed.) Parallel text processing: alignment and use of translation corpora. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000; pp. 219-236.

(2000) Sung Young Jung, Sung Lim Hong, & Eunok Paek: An English to Korean transliteration model of extended Markov window Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July -4 August 2000; pp. 383-389 [PDF,.531KB]

(2000) Jung-Jae Kim, Key-Sun Choi, & Young-Soog Chae: Phrase-pattern-based Korean to English machine translation using two level translation pattern selection. ACL-2000: 38th Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Hong Kong, October 2000. [PDF, 185KB]

(2000) Olivier Kraif: Evaluation of statistical tools for automatic extraction of lexical correspondences between parallel texts. MT2000: machine translation and multilingual applications in the new millennium: international conference at the University of Exeter, 20-22 November 2000, organised by the British Computer Society. [London: BCS]; 8pp. [PDF, 1579KB]

(2000) Emmanuel Planas & Osamu Furuse: Multi-level similar segment matching algorithm for translation memories and example-based machine translation Coling 2000 in Europe: the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken, Germany, 31 July -4 August 2000; pp. 621-627 [PDF,.564KB]

(2000) Raimund G. Piotrovskij: MT in the former USSR and in the Newly Independent States (NIS): pre-history, romantic era, prosaic time. In: W.John Hutchins (ed.) Early years in machine translation: memoirs and biographies of pioneers (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000); pp.233-242.

(2000) António Ribeiro, Gabriel Lopes, & Joăo Mexia: Using confidence bands for parallel texts alignment. ACL-2000: 38th Annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Hong Kong, October 2000. [PDF, 260KB]

Support vector machines

(2004) Timothy Baldwin & Takaaki Tanaka: Translation by machine of complex nominals: getting it right. Second ACL Workshop on Multiword Expressions: Integrating Processing. Proceedings of the workshop, 26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; pp.24-31. [PDF, 127KB]

(2001) Masaki Murata, Kiyotaka Uchimoto, Qing Ma, & Hitoshi Isahara: Using a support-vector machine for Japanese-to-English translation of tense, aspect, and modality. ACL-EACL 2001 workshop "Data-driven machine translation", July 7, 2001, Toulouse, France; pp.111-119. [PDF, 230KB]

System development

(2002) Gunarso: Utilization of the visual studio IDE for integrating the UNL development environment. ICUKL-2002: International Conference on Universal Knowledge and Language, 25th-29th November 2002, Goa, India, organised by UNDL Foundation and Indian Institute of  Technology Bombay; 6pp. [PDF, 597KB]

(2002) Hisami Suzuki: A development environment for large-scale multi-lingual parsing systems.  Coling-2002: Workshop on Grammar Engineering and Evaluation, August 2002, Taipei, Taiwan; 7pp. [PDF, 83KB]

(2001) Winfield Scott Bennett: Creating enterprise machine translation systems. International Journal of Translation 13 (1-2), Jan-Dec 2001; pp.209-215. [PDF,  35KB]

(2001) Angeliki Petrits: EC Systran: the Commission’s machine translation system. Revised 31 August 2001. 32pp. [PDF, 362KB]

(2000) A.Fourla, O.Yannoutsou, I.Tsakou, S.Stamou, & A.Petrits: The contribution of a user group to the evaluation and improvement of an MT system. Translating and the Computer 22: proceedings of the Twenty-second International Conference… 16-17 November 2000 (London: Aslib, 2000); 13pp.  [PDF, 132KB]

(2000) Heinz Kirchmann, Alassane Ndiaye & Andreas Klüter: From a stationary prototype to telephone translation services. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp. 659-669. [abstract]

(2000) Andreas Klüter, Alassane Ndiaye & Heinz Kirchmann: Verbmobil from a software engineering point of view: system design and software integration. In: Wolfgang Wahlster (ed.) Verbmobil: foundations of speech-to-speech translation. (Berlin: Springer, 2000); pp.635-658. [abstract]

Telecommunications

(2004) Rita Nübel: Evaluation and adaptation of a specialised language checking tool for non-specialised machine translation and non-expert MT users for multi-lingual telecooperation. LREC-2004: Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Proceedings, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-28 May 2004; pp.2027-2030. [PDF, 536KB]

(2000) Vladimir Oboronko: Wired for peace and multi-language communication: virtual diplomacy in northeast Asia and web-based translation. AMTA 2000 pre-conference workshop “Machine translation in practice: from old guard to new guard”, Cuernavaca,Mexico, October10,  2000 . 5p. [PDF, 183KB]

(2000) M. Abdus Salam: Machine translation and multilingual communication on the internet. MT2000: machine translation and multilingual applications in the new millennium: international conference at the University of Exeter, 20-22 November 2000, organised by the British Computer Society. [London: BCS]; 5pp. [PDF, 1003KB]

Text prediction

(2004) José Esteban, José Lorenzo, Antonio S. Valderrábanos, & Guy Lapalme: TransType2 – an innovative computer assisted translation system.  ACL 2004: 42nd annual meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the interactive poster and demonstration sessions, 21-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 4pp. [PDF, 421KB]

(2004) Laurent Nepveu, Guy Lapalme, Philippe Langlais, & George Foster: Adaptive language and translation models for interactive machine translation. EMNLP-2004: Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, 25-26 July 2004, Barcelona, Spain; 8pp. [PDF, 100KB]

(2003) Simona Gandrabur & George Foster: Confidence estimation for translation prediction HLT-NAACL 2003: proceedings of Seventh Conference on Natural Language Learning,  May 27 – June 1,  2003, Edmonton, Canada; 8pp. [PDF, 420KB]

(2003) Franz Josef Och, Richard Zens & Hermann Ney: Efficient search for interactive statistical machine translation. EACL 2003: 10th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, April 12-17, 2003, Budapest, Hungary. Proceedings; pp.387-394 [PDF, 324KB]

(2002) George Foster, Philippe Langlais, & Guy Lapalme: TransType: text prediction for translators. HLT 2002: Human Language Technology Conference: proceedings of the second international conference on human language technology research, March 24-27, 2002, San Diego, California; ed. Mitchell Marcus [San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann for DARPA]; pp. 372-374. [PDF, 214KB]

(2002) George Foster, Philippe Langlais, & Guy Lapalme: User-friendly text prediction for translators. EMNLP-2002: Proceedings of the 2002 conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, July 2002, Philadelphia, USA; pp.148-155. [PDF, 121KB]

(2002) George Foster, Philippe Langlais, & Guy Lapalme: Text prediction with fuzzy alignment. Machine translation: from research to real users: 5th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2002, Tiburon, CA, October 2002; ed. Stephen D. Richardson (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002); pp. 44-53. [go to publisher details]

(2002) Philippe Langlais, Marie Loranger, & Guy Lapalme: Translators at work with TransType: resource and evaluation. LREC-2002: Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Proceedings, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, 27 May – 2 June 2002; pp.2128-2135. [PDF, 253KB]

(2001) Tanapong Potipiti, Virach Sornlertlamvanich, & Kanokwut Thanadkran: Towards an intelligent multilingual keyboard system. HLT-2001: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Human Language Technology Research, San Diego, CA, March 18-21, 2001; 4pp. [PDF, 65KB]

(2001) Sébastien Sauvé, Philippe Langlais, & Guy Lapalme: User interface aspects of a translation typing system.  Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 14th Biennial Conference of the Canadian Society for Computational Studies of Intelligence, AI 2001, Ottawa, Canada, June 7-9, 2001, Proceedings; pp. 246-256 [PDF, 267KB]

(2000) Philippe Langlais, George Foster, & Guy Lapalme: TransType: a computer-aided translation typing system; ANLP/NAACL 2000 workshop: Embedded machine translation systems, May 4, 2000, Seattle, Washington, [USA]; pp.46-51. [PDF, 599KB]

(2000) Philippe Langlais, George Foster, & Guy Lapalme: Unit completion for a computer-aided translation typing system.  ANLP-NAACL-2000: proceedings of the Sixth conference on Applied Natural Language Processing and 1st Meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, April 29 – May 4, 2000, Seattle, Washington; pp. 135-141. [PDF, 795KB]

(2000) Philippe Langlais, Sébastien Sauvé, George Foster, Elliott Macklovitch, & Guy Lapalme: Evaluation of TransType, a computer-aided translation typing system: a comparison of a theoretical- and a user-oriented evaluation procedures. LREC-2000: Second International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Proceedings, Athens, Greece, 31 May – 2 June 2000; pp. 641-648. [PDF, 1302KB]

XML

(2004) Victoria Arranz, Núria Castell, Josep Maria Crego, Jesús Giménez, Adriŕ de Gispert, & Patrick Lambert: Bilingual connections for trilingual corpora: an XML approach.  LREC-2004: Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Proceedings, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-28 May 2004; pp.1459-1462. [PDF, 674KB]

 (2004) Christophe Chenon: Dynamical visualization of nested correspondences. Translating and the Computer 26: proceedings of the Twenty-sixth International Conference on Translating and the Computer, 18-19 November 2004, London. (London: Aslib, 2004); 17pp. [PDF, 191KB]

(2004) Philipp Koehn: Pharaoh: a beam search decoder for phrase-based statistical machine translation models. Machine translation: from real users to research: 6th conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA 2004, Washington, DC, September 28 – October 2, 2004; ed. Robert E.Frederking and Kathryn B.Taylor (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2004); pp. 115-124. [go to publisher details]

(2004) Mirko Plitt: Connecting writers and translators – XML-based content management of product documentation at Autodesk. Translating and the Computer 26: proceedings of the Twenty-sixth International Conference on Translating and the Computer, 18-19 November 2004, London. (London: Aslib, 2004); 11pp. [PDF, 71KB]

(2003) JosuKa Díaz-Labrador, Joseba Abaitua, Inés Jacob, Fernando Quintana, & Garikoitz Araolaza: Metadata for multilingual content management: a practical experience with the SARE-Bi system. Translating and the Computer 25: proceedings of the Twenty-fifth International Conference on Translating and the Computer, 20-21 November 2003, London. (London: Aslib, 2003); 20pp. [PDF, 146KB]

(2003) Jean Senellart, Christian Boitet, & Laurent Romary: SYSTRAN new generation: the XML translation workflow MT Summit IX, New Orleans, USA, 23-27 September 2003; pp.338-345. [PDF, 308KB]

(2003) Andrzej Zydroń: xml:tm – Using XML technology to reduce the cost of authoring and translation. Translating and the Computer 25: proceedings of the Twenty-fifth International Conference on Translating and the Computer, 20-21 November 2003, London. (London: Aslib, 2003); 16pp. [PDF, 237KB]

(2002) Guillermo Barrutieta, Joseba Abaitua, & JosuKa Díaz: Cascading XSL filters for content selection in multilingual document generation. Coling-2002: Second Workshop on NLP and XML (NLPXML-2002), August 2002, Taipei, Taiwan; 6pp. [PDF, 261KB]

(2002) Daniel W.Dube: Reducing localization costs with XML-based technology. Translating and the Computer 24: proceedings from the Aslib conference held on 21-22 November 2002 (London: Aslib, 2002); 9pp. [PDF, 103KB]

(2002) Carlos A. Estombelo Montesco & Dilvan de Abreu Moreira: UCL – universal communication language. LREC-2002: Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Workshop: First international workshop on UNL, other interlinguas and their applications, Las Palmas Canary Islands, 27 May 2002; pp.33-37. [PDF, 263KB]

(2002) Yohei Seki & Ken'ichi Harada: Machine translation based on NLG from XML-DB. Coling 2002, Taipei, Taiwan, 26-30 August 2002 [PDF, 194KB]

(2002) Wang-Ju Tsai: A platform for experimenting UNL (Universal Networking Language). LREC-2002: Third International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Workshop: First international workshop on UNL, other interlinguas and their applications, Las Palmas Canary Islands, 27 May 2002; pp.27-32. [PDF, 175KB]

(2002): Hideo Watanabe, Katashi Nagao, Michael C. McCord & Arendse Bernth: An annotation system for enhancing quality of natural language processing. Coling 2002, Taipei, Taiwan, 26-30 August 2002 [PDF, 202KB]

(2001) Guillermo Barrutieta, Joseba Abaitua & Josuha Díaz: Gross-grained RST through XML metadata for multilingual document generation. MT Summit VIII: Machine Translation in the Information Age, Proceedings, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 18-22 September 2001; pp.39-42. [PDF, 151KB]

(2001) Dan Dube: XML and the localization process. Language International 13 (2), April 2001; pp.34-36. [PDF, 602KB]

(2001) René Snel: XML: the new bandwagon. Language International 13 (1), February 2001; pp.19-21. [PDF, 575KB]

 (2000) Caroline Brun, Marc Dymetman, & Veronika Lux: Document structure and multilingual authoring. INLG’2000 : Proceedings of the First International Conference on Natural Language Generation, Mitzpe Ramon, Israel, 12-16 June 2000; pp.24-31. [PDF, 729KB]

(2000) Daniel W.Dube & John D.Rice: XML and the localization process. Translating and the Computer 22: proceedings of the Twenty-second International Conference… 16-17 November 2000 (London: Aslib, 2000); 8pp.  [PDF, 64KB]

(2000) Alan K.Melby: XML and the translator. Translation Journal 4 (2), April 2000; 4pp. [PDF, 68KB]