Machine Translation Archive

 

Index of general and miscellaneous topics

Publications 1990-1999

 

For other periods go to: Publications since 2010; publications 2005-2009; publications 2000-2004; publications 1970-1989; publications before 1970

 

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ALPAC

 (1996) John Hutchins: ALPAC: the (in)famous report. MT News International 14 (June 1996), 15-21. [PDF, 110KB]

Associations and societies

(1998) LISA – global association for billion-dollar business. Language Today 6, March 1998; p.3. [PDF, 1678KB]

Awards

(1997) Award for Nagao.  Language Today 3, December 1997; p.21. [PDF, 130KB]

Book reviews

(1999) Alex Gross: Two German books about machine translation. Translation Journal, vol. 3, no.3, July 1999. 4pp. [PDF, 101KB]

(1999) Derek Lewis: [review of] Gregory Grefenstette (ed) Cross-language information retrieval (Kluwer, 1998). In: Machine Translation Review, issue 10: October 1999; pp.26-27. [PDF]

(1998) Derek Lewis: [review of] Colin Hayes: Breaking down the language barriers (Aslib, 1998). In: Machine Translation Review, issue 8: October 1998; pp.35-37. [PDF]

(1998) Geoffrey Sampson:  Book review: From grammar to science: new foundations for general linguistics [by] Victor H.Yngve. Computational Linguistics 24 (1), pp. 173-176 [PDF, 2326KB]

(1998) Frank van Eynde: [review of] Machine translation and translation theory, Christa Hauenschild and Susanne Heizmann (eds.). Computational Linguistics 24 (3), pp. 516-519 [PDF, 312KB]

(1996) Colin Brace: Ovum's translation tools report [part 1]. In: MT News International no.13, February 1996.

 (1996) Adam Kilgarriff: [review of] Donald E.Walker, Antonio Zampolli and Nicoletta Calzolari (eds.) Automating the lexicon: research and practice in a multilingual environment (Oxford University Press). In: Machine Translation Review, issue 3: April 1996; pp.35-38. [PDF]

(1996) Jon Mills: [review of] B.T.S. Atkins and A.Zampolli: Computational approaches to the lexicon (Oxford University Press, 1994). In: Machine Translation Review, issue 4: October 1996; pp.35-37. [PDF]

(1996) Jackie Murgida: Ovum's report on translation technology products, part II. In: MT News International no.14, June 1996.

(1996) Inderjeet Mani: [review of] Machine translation and the lexicon [ed.by] Petra Steffens (Springer Verlag, 1995). Computational Linguistics 22 (2), pp. 271-273 [PDF, 240KB]

(1996) Klaus Schubert: Melby on MT semantics: [review of] Alan K.Melby: The possibility of language... 1995. In: MT News International no.14, June 1996.

(1995) Bonnie J. Dorr: [review of] Compositional translation [by] M.T.Rosetta (pseud.) (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994). Computational Linguistics 21 (4), pp. 582-589 [PDF, 597KB]

(1995) Susanne Heizmann: [review of] Machine translation: an introductory guide [by] D.Arnold et al. (NCC Blackwell, 1994). Computational Linguistics 21 (4), pp. 577-578 [PDF, 131KB]

(1995) Derek Lewis: [review of] Doug Arnold et al.: Machine translation: an introductory guide (NCC/Blackwell, 1994). In: Machine Translation Review, issue 1: April 1995; pp. 32-33.

(1995) Tsuyoshi Morimoto: [review of] Verbmobil: a translation system for face-to-face dialog [by] Martin Kay et al. (CSLI, 1994). Computational Linguistics 21 (2), pp. 272-273 [PDF, 303KB]

(1995) Catharine Scott: [review of] W.John Hutchins and Harold L.Somers: An introduction to machine translation (Academic Press, 1992). In: Machine Translation Review, issue 2: October 1995; pp.35-36.

(1995) Nigel Ward: [review of] Speech-to-speech translation: a massively parallel memory-based approach [by] Hiroaki Kitano (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994). Computational Linguistics 21 (4), pp. 590-592 [PDF, 242KB]

(1994) Daniel Radzinski: [review of] Machine translation: a view from the lexicon [by] Bonnie Jean Dorr (MIT Press, 1992). Computational Linguistics 20 (4), pp. 670-676 [PDF, 507KB]

(1994) The good (and the bad) news about machine translation. [review: Arnold et al. Machine translation: an introductory guide]. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.19, January-February 1994; p.16. [PDF, 80KB]

 (1993) Bob Clark: [review of] Computers in translation: a practical appraisal, ed. John Newton (Routledge, 1992).  Language International 5 (1), 1993; p.42. [PDF, 16KB]

(1993) Steven Lytinen: [review of] Machine translation: a knowledge-based approach [by] Sergei Nirenburg et al. (Morgan Kaufmann, 1992); and of: The KBMT project: a case study in knowledge-based machine translation, [ed.by] Kenneth Goodman and Sergei Nirenburg (Morgan Kaufmann, 1991). Computational Linguistics 19 (1), pp. 207-209 [PDF, 196KB]

(1993) Gudrún Magnúsdóttir: [review of] An introduction to machine translation [by] W.John Hutchins and Harold L.Somers (Academic Press, 1992). Computational Linguistics 19 (2), pp. 383-384 [PDF, 122KB]

(1993) Victor Sadler: [review of] Lexical acquisition: exploiting on-line resources to build a lexicon [ed. by] Uri Zernik (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991). Computational Linguistics 19 (1), pp. 214-216 [PDF, 206KB]

(1990) Dominique Estival: [review of] Machine translation: how far can it go? [by] Makoto Nagao (Oxford University Press, 1989). Computational Linguistics 16 (3), pp. 182-184 [PDF, 358KB]

 (1990) Geoffrey Kingscott: [review of] New directions in machine translation, ed. Dan Maxwell; Dordrecht 1988. Language International 2 (1), February 1990; pp.41-42 [PDF, 44KB]

Books on MT

(1994) D.Arnold, L.Balkan, R.Lee Humphreys, S.Meijer, & L.Sadler: Machine translation: an introductory guide. Manchester/Oxford: NCC Blackwell, 1994. viii, 240pp. [PDF files]

(1992) W.John Hutchins & Harold L.Somers: An introduction to machine translation. London: Academic Press. xxi, 362pp. [PDF]

Conference reports

(1999) Colin Brace: MT in Eastern Europe.  In: MT News International no.22, July 1999. [PDF]

(1999) Gary A. Coen: AMTA-98 covers “MT and the Information Soup”.  In: MT News International no.21, February 1999. [PDF]

(1999) Jo Edwards: Focus on human language technologies. Language Today 17, March 1999; pp.14-15. [PDF, 2020KB]

(1999) Deborah Fry: The LISA Forum – Asia, Shanghai, May 26-28, 1999.  Language Today 18, July 1999; p.32. [PDF, 946KB]

(1999) John Hutchins: EAGLES Workshop, Pisa, Januray 19-20, 1999.  In: MT News International no.21, February 1999. [PDF]

(1999) John Hutchins: Translating and the Computer 20, London, November 12-13, 1998.  In: MT News International no.21, February 1999. [PDF]

(1999) Virginia Teller: AMTA-98: a true milestone. In: MT News International no.21, February 1999. [PDF]

(1998) Andrew Bredenkamp: Controlled languages are becoming crucial: report on the CLAW 98 conference. Language Today 11, August 1998; pp.10-12. [PDF, 2659KB]

(1998) Andrew Bredenkamp: Integrating translation technology … EAMT Workshop. Language Today 9, June 1998; pp.10-12. [PDF, 2254KB]

(1998) Bob Clark: Machine translation (MT) Summit VI – past, present, future, San Diego, California, 19 October – 1 November 1997.  Language Today 4, January 1998; pp.2-5. [PDF, 6202KB]

(1998) Deborah Fry: Evaluating language technology: EAGLES II workshop on evaluation standards and resource sharing. Language Today 7, April 1998; pp.6-7. [PDF, 1559KB]

(1998) W.John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. Part 4: The first machine translation conference, June 1952.  Language Today 13, October 1998; pp.12-13. [PDF, 672KB]

(1998) Elliott Macklovitch: MT Summit VI: an opinionated view.  In: MT News International no.20, October 1998. [PDF]

(1998) Muriel Vasconcellos: MT Summit VI – marks milestone.  In: MT News International no.20, October 1998. [PDF]

(1998) Sue Ellen Wright: The business of language: a Kent State forum focuses on commercial applications. Language International 10 (6), 1998; pp.34-36. [PDF, 112KB]

(1998) Sue Ellen Wright: Live from Vienna: special report from TAMA terminology conference.  Language International 10 (2), 1998; pp.31,33. [PDF, 90KB]

(1998) AMTA-98 looks at MT.  In: MT News International no.20, October 1998. [PDF]

(1998) Globalisation and translator training. Language Today 8, May 1998; p.11. [PDF, 1714KB]

(1998) Tánaiste opens SLIG ’97. Language Today 4, January 1998; pp.8-9. [PDF, 1364KB]

(1997) Winfield Scott Bennett: Center for Machine Translation: Tenth Year Anniversary Symposium, October 7 and 8, 1996.  In: MT News International no.16, February/March 1997. [PDF]

(1997) Kalina Bontcheva: Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP’96), 11-13 September 1997.  In: MT News International no.18, October/November 1997. [PDF]

(1997) Sharon Denness: MT Summit looks back to the future. Language International 9 (6), 1997; pp.12-13. [PDF, 118KB]

(1997) Laurie Gerber & Stephen Helmreich: AMTA-96: Biennial AMTA Conference at Montreal, 2-5 October 1996: Two personal views.  In: MT News International no.16, February/March 1997. [PDF]

(1997) John Hutchins: ArbeitskreisMaschinelle Übersetzung”, 7 February 1997 [Luxembourg].  In: MT News International no.17, June/July 1997. [PDF]

(1997) John Hutchins: EAMT Workshop, Copenhagen, 21-22 May 1997.  In: MT News International no.17, June/July 1997. [PDF]

(1997) John Hutchins: TMI-97 meets in Santa Fe, 23-25 July 1997.  In: MT News International no.18, October/November 1997. [PDF]

(1997) John Hutchins: Translating and the Computer 18, London, 14-15 November 1996.  In: MT News International no.16, February/March 1997. [PDF]

(1997) Steven Krauwer, Doug Arnold, Walter Kasper, Manny Rayner, & Harold Somers: The Spoken Language Translation Workshop: ACL/EACL-97, 11 July 1997, Madrid.  In: MT News International no.18, October/November 1997. [PDF]

(1997) Alan Melby & Muriel Vasconcellos: MT Summit VI: special report.  Language International 9 (6), 1997; pp.14-15. [PDF, 92KB]

(1997) Reinhard Schäler: Evaluation of Translation Tools for Localisation: LRC Workshop, Dublin, 17 April 1997.  In: MT News International no.17, June/July 1997. [PDF]

(1997) Reinhard Schäler: Evaluation Workshop, Dublin, 15 October 1996: Automatic Translation – How good is it?  In: MT News International no.16, February/March 1997. [PDF]

(1997) Reinhard Schäler: SLIG’96, Dublin, 14 October 1996. In: MT News International no.16, February/March 1997. [PDF]

(1997) The LISA Forum, Asia: software localization professionals focus on emerging Asian markets, Beijing, China, 6-8 August 1997.  In: MT News International no.18, October/November 1997. [PDF]

(1997) How computers affect the translation process [Equivalences conference, Zurich].  Language Today 2, November 1997; pp.2-3. [PDF, 407KB]

(1996) Robert Clark: MT Summit V, Luxembourg, July 10-13 1995. Language International 8 (1), 1996; pp.12-14. [PDF, 108KB]

(1996) Gary Goldfinch: Torte and tautology [report of TKE 96]. Language International 8 (6), 1996; p.17-18. [PDF, 109KB]

(1996) John Hutchins: EAMT Machine Translation Workshop, 29-30 August, Vienna. In: MT News International no.15, October 1996. [PDF]

(1996) John Hutchins: Second Language Engineering Convention, London, 16-18 October 1995.  In: MT News International no.13, February 1996. [PDF]

(1996) John Hutchins: Terminology and Knowledge Engineering (TKE’96) 4th International Congress, 26-28 August 1996, Vienna, Austria. In: MT News International no.15, October 1996. [PDF]

(1996) John Hutchins: Translating and the Computer 17, London, 9-10 November 1995. In: MT News International no.13, February 1996. [PDF]

(1996) Ruslan Mitkov: Natural Language Processing Pacific Rim Symposium, Seoul, 4-6 December 1995.  In: MT News International no.13, February 1996. [PDF]

(1996) Reinhard Schäler: Software localisation in Ireland: SLIG ’95. Language International 8 (1), 1996; pp.8-9. [PDF, 77KB]

(1996) Reinhard Schaeler: Software Localisation in Ireland – SLIG’95.  In: MT News International no.13, February 1996. [PDF]

(1996) NLP conference at Moncton University, 4-6 June 1996.  In: MT News International no.15, October 1996. [PDF]

(1995) Michael Anobile: The LISA Forum, Mountain View California, November 7-8, 1994.  In: MT News International no.10, January 19945. [PDF]

(1995) Susanne Heizmann: International Workshop on “Machine Translation & Translation Theory”, 14-16 September 1994, Hildesheim.  In: MT News International no.10, January 1995. [PDF]

(1995) John Hutchins: Machine Translation: Ten Years on, 12-14 November 1994, Cranfield, UK.  In: MT News International no.10, January 19945. [PDF]

(1995) John Hutchins: MT Summit V held in Luxembourg, 10-13 July 1995.  In: MT News International no.12, October 1995. [PDF]

(1995) John Hutchins: TMI-95 in Leuven, Belgium, 5-7 July 1995.  In: MT News International no.12, October 1995. [PDF]

(1995) John Hutchins: Translating and the Computer 16, 10-11 November 1994, London.  In: MT News International no.10, January 19945. [PDF]

(1995) Kevin Knight: AMTA holds its first conference [Columbia City, October 1994].  In: MT News International no.10, January 1995. [PDF]

(1995) Ruslan Mitkov: Fourth International Summer School “Contemporary topics in Computational Linguistics” (with emphasis on Machine Translation), 1-6 September 1994, Tuzlata, Bulgaria.  In: MT News International no.10, January 19945. [PDF]

(1995) MT at ANLP-94.  In: MT News International no.10, January 19945. [PDF]

(1995) Nicolas Nicolov: Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP’95), 14-16 September 1995.  In: MT News International no.12, October 1995. [PDF]

(1995) Summer School on Computers and Translation, 5-8 July, University of Vigo (Galicia, Spain).  In: MT News International no.10, January 19945. [PDF]

(1994) Eduard Hovy: Japan-US Workshop on Machine Aided Translation, 22-24 Nove,ber 1993.  In: MT News International no.7, January 1994. [PDF]

(1994) John Hutchins: Francophone conference on MT held in Montreal, 30 September, 1-2 October 1993.  In: MT News International no.7, January 1994. [PDF]

(1994) John Hutchins: MT workshop in Limerick.  In: MT News International no.9, September 1994. [PDF]

(1994) John Hutchins: Translating and the Computer 15, 18-19 November 1993.  In: MT News International no.7, January 1994. [PDF]

(1994) Joseph Pentheroudakis: MT Showcase at AAAI-94.  In: MT News International no.9, September 1994. [PDF]

 (1994) Paul Roochnik: Arabic MT tops AACNAA agenda.  In: MT News International no.9, September 1994. [PDF]

 (1994) Karen Spalink: Seminar on Matching Up MT Users and MT Environments, 6 October 1993.  In: MT News International no.7, January 1994. [PDF]

 (1994) Muriel Vasconcellos: AMTA takes a close look at “Text and MT”, 5 October 1993.  In: MT News International no.7, January 1994. [PDF]

(1994) Clifford J.Weinstein: Overview of the 1994 ARPA Human Language Technology workshop. Human Language Technology: proceedings of a workshop held at Plainsboro, New Jersey, USA, March 8-11, 1994. (San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1994); pp.3-5. [PDF, 231KB]

 (1994) Language Engineering Convention, Paris 6-7 July 1994.  In: MT News International no.9, September 1994. [PDF]

(1994) LISA: back for more. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.21, May-June 1994; p.7. [PDF, 92KB]

 (1994) The pragmatic approach gaining ground. Language International 6 (1), 1994; pp.6-7. [PDF, 83KB]

(1993) Madeleine Bates: Overview of the ARPA Human Language Technology workshop. Human Language Technology: proceedings of a workshop held at Plainsboro, New Jersey, USA, March 21-24, 1993. (San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1993); pp.3-4. [PDF, 184KB]

 (1993) John Benoit & Joseph Pentheroudakis: MT Showcase at the Evaluation Workshop.  In: MT News International no.4, January 1993. [PDF]

 (1993) Colin Brace: Whither MT? Language International 5 (6), 1993; pp.13-14. [PDF, 59KB]

 (1993) Bob Clark: Technology serving the translator. Language International 5 (1), 1993; pp.32-33. [PDF, 85KB]

 (1993) Bob Clark: Translating in America: MT evaluation and new frontiers. Language International 5 (1), 1993; pp.29-31. [PDF, 179KB]

 (1993) Tom Gerhardt & John Hutchins: German MT Users Circle meets in Saarbrücken.  In: MT News International no.4, January 1993. [PDF]

 (1993) John Hutchins: EACL-93, Utrecht, 21-23 April 1993.  In: MT News International no.5, May 1993. [PDF]

 (1993) John Hutchins: Salford Colloquium on Translation.  In: MT News International no.4, January 1993. [PDF]

(1993) John Hutchins: TMI-93 continues the ‘rationalist-empiricist’ debate.  In: MT News International no.6, September 1993. [PDF]

 (1993) John Hutchins: Translating and the Computer 14.  In: MT News International no.4, January 1993. [PDF]

 (1993) Bertie Kaal: Evaluating machine translation in the 1990s: Machine Translation Summit IV, Kobe, Japan 20-22 July 1993. Language International 5 (5), 1993; pp.5-6. [PDF, 61KB]

 (1993) Geoffrey Kingscott: Translating and the computer: the 14th annual Translating and the Computer conference. Language International 5 (2), 1993; p.14. [PDF, 45KB]

 (1993) Joann Ryan: MT Seminar for Translators in San Diego.  In: MT News International no.4, January 1993. [PDF]

 (1993) Petra Steffens & John Hutchins: Machine Translation and the Lexicon.  In: MT News International no.5, May 1993. [PDF]

(1993) Muriel Vasconcellos & John Hutchins: MT Summit IV features “International Cooperation for Global Communication”.  In: MT News International no.6, September 1993. [PDF]

 (1993) Clare R. Voss: Building Lexicons for Machine Translation.  In: MT News International no.5, May 1993. [PDF]

(1993) A hot date with LISA. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.15, May-June 1993; p.8. [PDF, 91KB]

 (1993) IAMT/AMTA Holds a Workshop on MT Evaluation {San Diego, November 1992]. In: MT News International no.4, January 1993. [PDF]

 (1993) Technology & Language in Europe 2000: the UK perspective. Symposium, London, 15 January 1993. British Computer Society Natural Language Translation Specialist Group, Newsletter no 21, April 1993; pp.9-10. [PDF, 59KB]

 (1993) MT evaluation symposium at MT World’92.  In: MT News International no.4, January 1993. [PDF]

(1993) MT Summit IV. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.17, September-October 1993; pp.4-6. [PDF, 97KB]

(1993) TMI’93 notes. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.17, September-October 1993; pp.13-14. [PDF, 83KB]

 (1993) Translation Fair ’93 [Tokyo].  In: MT News International no.6, September 1993. [PDF]

(1992) Sofia Ananiadou: Second International Workshop on Fundamental Research for the Future Generation of Natural Language Processing (FGNLP).  In: MT News International no.3, September 1992. [PDF]

(1992) Peter Brown & Eduard Hovy: DARPA’s Boston MT party.  In: MT News International no.3, September 1992. [PDF]

(1992) John Hutchins: The first MT conference, 1952. MT News International 2 (May 1992), 11-12. [PDF, 96KB]

 (1992) John Hutchins: MT Summit III in Washington, July 1991.  In: MT News International no.1, January 1992. [PDF]

 (1992) John Hutchins: TMI in Montreal, 25-27 June 1992.  In: MT News International no.3, September 1992. [PDF]

 (1992) John Hutchins: Translating and the Computer 13, November 1991.  In: MT News International no.1, January 1992. [PDF]

 (1992) Margaret King: Evaluators’ Forum, les Rasses, Switzerland, April 1991. In: MT News International no.1, January 1992. [PDF]

 (1992) Margaret King: The Strategic Role of Evaluation in Natural Language Processing and Speech Technology, Edinburgh, 30 April – 2nd May, 1992.  In: MT News International no.3, September 1992. [PDF]

 (1992) Geoffrey Kingscott: MT theory and MT practice: report of the 13th annual international Translating and the Computer conference. Language International 4 (1), 1992; pp.29-30. [PDF, 56KB]

 (1992) Geoffrey Kingscott: Translator workbench. Language International 4 (1), 1992; pp.23-24. [PDF, 72KB]

(1992) Mitchell P. Marcus: Overview of the Fifth DARPA Speech and Natural Language workshop.  Speech and Natural Language: proceedings of a workshop held at Harriman, New York, USA, February 23-26, 1992. (San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1992); pp. 3-4. [PDF, 188KB]

(1992) Makoto Nagao: MT Workshop in Taiwan, May 1991.  In: MT News International no.1, January 1992. [PDF]

(1992) Hirosato Nomura: MMT’91 Beijing.  In: MT News International no.1, January 1992. [PDF]

(1992) Joseph Pentheroudakis: 1991 Nordic Computational Linguistics Conference focuses on MT. In: MT News International no.1, January 1992. [PDF]

(1992) Steve Richardson: MT at COLING’92.  In: MT News International no.3, September 1992. [PDF]

(1992) Steven Richardson: TMI’92: a second opinion. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.12, November-December 1992; p.10. [PDF, 106KB]

(1992) Tony Whitecomb: Statistical methods gaining ground. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.11, Sept-Oct 1992; pp.1-3. [PDF, 106KB]

(1992) MT systems galore in San Diego. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.12, November-December 1992; p.2. [PDF, 106KB]

(1992) MT World’92.  In: MT News International no.2, May 1992. [PDF]

(1992) Translators still in the loop. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.12, November-December 1992; pp.1-4. [PDF, 106KB]

 (1991) Monique C.Cormier: Evaluation of machine translation systems. Language International 3 (4), July 1991; p.8. [PDF, 63KB]

(1991) Patti Price: Overview of the Fourth DARPA Speech and Natural Language workshop.  Speech and Natural Language: proceedings of a workshop held at Pacific Grove, California, USA, February 19-22, 1991. (San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1991); pp. 3-4. [PDF, 251KB]

 (1991) Document conference in Bremen. Language International 3 (1), February 1991; p.11. [PDF, 48KB]

 (1991) International Association of Machine Translation founded: MT Summit III, Washington DC, July 1-4. Language International 3 (5), October 1991; pp.17-18. [PDF, 28KB]

(1991) The third MT Summit. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.5, September -October 1991; p.7. [PDF, 95KB]

(1991) MT evaluator’s forum. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.3, May-June 1991; p.5. [PDF, 97KB]

 (1990) Geoffrey Kingscott: [book review] New directions in machine translation, ed. Dan Maxwell; Dordrecht 1988. Language International 2 (1), February 1990; pp.41-42 [PDF, 44KB]

(1990) Richard M. Stern: Overview of the Third DARPA Speech and Natural language workshop. Speech and Natural Language: proceedings of a workshop held at Hidden Valley, Pennsylvania, USA, June 24-27, 1990. (San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1990); p. 3. [PDF, 108KB]

(1992) John Hutchins: MT Summit III in Washington, July 1991.  In: MT News International no.1, January 1992. [PDF]

(1990) Tony Whitcomb: Machine translation looks east. Electric Word 17, January-February 1990; p.11. [PDF, 171KB]

(1990) George Muskens: Vienna conference on multilingualism and machine translation: East meets West. Language International 2 (2), April 1990; pp.24-25. [PDF, 61KB]

(1990) National Academy of Sciences: Report of a symposium on Japanese to English machine translation held at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. on December 7, 1989 (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990); xiii, 36pp. [PDF, 266KB]

(1990) Insights into Soviet MT. [report of conference in Tbilisi]. Language International 2 (2), April 1990; p.25. [PDF, 31KB]

(1990) Translating and the Computer XI. Language International 2 (1), February 1990; p.26. [PDF, 48KB]

Economic aspects

(1999) Margaret King: TransRouter: a decision support tool for translation managers. Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 272-277. [PDF, 148KB]

(1999) Marjorie León: FAMT is alive and well. Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.149-151. [PDF, 93KB]

(1997) Doris Marty-Albisser: Economics of translation tools -- experience gained at Swiss Bank Corporation EAMT Workshop "Language technology in your organization?", May 21 - 22, 1997, Center for Sprogteknologi, Copenhagen, Denmark; pp.8-16. [PDF, 370KB]

(1996) Harri Arnola: Kielikone machine translation technology and its perspective on the economics of machine translation. In: EAMT Workshop, Vienna, 29-30 August 1996. [PDF]

(1996) Julian Perkin: More computers are being used to translate documents, and they save money. Financial Times, 22 April 1996. 3pp. [PDF, 69KB]

(1995) Stephan Bodenkamp: Machine translation - the economical part of multilingual information processing. MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 1p. [abstract only] [PDF, 72KB]

(1995) D. Marty-Albisser: Integration of MT into the business process. MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 1p. [abstract only] [PDF, 55KB]

(1994) Viggo Hansen: PaTrans - a MT System: development and implementation of and experiences from a MT-system. Technology partnerships for crossing the language barrier: Proceedings of the First Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas,5-8 October, Columbia, Maryland, USA. [Washington, DC: AMTA]; pp.114-121. [PDF, 128KB]

(1994) The economics of MT. Panel at the First Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 5-8 October 1994, Columbia, Maryland, USA (Washington, DC: AMTA); p.220 [PDF, 75KB]

(1994) Kazunori Muraki: The cost of MT in Japan. Contribution to panel Voices of experience: MT in operational settings at the First Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 5-8 October 1994, Columbia, Maryland, USA (Washington, DC: AMTA); pp.221-222 [PDF, 84KB]

(1994) Bonjour, Eurolang Optimizer. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.20, March-April 1994; pp.1-3. [PDF,  91KB]

(1993) Doris Albisser: Evaluating machine translation systems in a real work environment. [Expanded version.] In: Sergei Nirenburg (ed.) Progress in machine translation (Amsterdam, Oxford, Washington, DC: IOS Press; Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1993), pp. 278-282. [PDF, 117KB]

(1992) Gudrun Magnusdottir: Evaluation of lexical coverage.  In: MT evaluation: basis for future directions. Proceedings of a workshop..., 2-3 November 1992, San Diego, California; p. 60 [PDF, 73KB]

(1991) Doris Albisser: Evaluation of MT systems at Union Bank of Switzerland.  Proceedings of the Evaluators’ Forum, April 21st – 24th, 1991, Les Rasses, Vaud, Switzerland, ed. Kirsten Falkedal. (Geneva: ISSCO); pp. 51-53. [PDF, 84KB]

(1991) Thomas Seal: Alpnet and TSS: the commercial realities of using a computer-based translation system.  Translating and the Computer 13: The Theory and Practice of Machine Translation – A Marriage of Convenience? Papers presented at a conference… 28-29 November 1991, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1992); pp.119-125. [PDF, 46KB]

Ergonomic aspects

(1990) Gunnela Westlander: The long-term effects of working with computers: the state of the art in the field of computer use and occupational health.  Translating and the Computer 12: Applying technology in the translation process, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 8-9 November 1990, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1991); pp. 115-128. [PDF, 155KB]

FAHQT (Fully automatic high quality translation)

(1999) John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. No 6: Bar-Hillel and the nonfeasibility of FAHQT. International Journal for Language and Documentation 1, September 1999; pp.20-21. [PDF, 652KB]

(1998) W.John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. Part 3 – Bar-Hillel’s survey, 1951.  Language Today 8, May 1998; pp.22-23. [PDF, 1633KB]

(1995) Elliott Macklovitch: The future of MT is now and Bar-Hillel was (almost entirely) right. In: BISFAI’95: Proceedings [of] The Fourth Bar-Ilan Symposium on Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Moshe Koppel & Eli Shamir, June 20-22, 1995, Ramat Gat and Jerusalem, Israel (Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press, 1996); pp.137-148. [PDF, 64KB]

(1995) Sergei Nirenburg: Bar Hillel and machine translation: then and now. In: BISFAI’95: Proceedings [of] The Fourth Bar-Ilan Symposium on Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Moshe Koppel & Eli Shamir, June 20-22, 1995, Ramat Gat and Jerusalem, Israel (Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press, 1996); pp.137-148. [PDF, 42KB]

Failures and limitations (see also Unknown words)

 (1999) John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. No 6: Bar-Hillel and the nonfeasibility of FAHQT. International Journal for Language and Documentation 1, September 1999; pp.20-21. [PDF, 652KB]

(1999) Alan Melby: Machine translation and philosophy of language. In: Machine Translation Review, issue 9: April 1999; pp.6-17. [PDF]

(1998) Stephen Budiansky: Lost in translation. Atlantic Monthly, vol.282, no.6, December 1998, pp.80-84. [PDF, 124KB]

(1998) Fred Klein: Machine translation – a new dimension and what you can expect. TC-Forum, 2-98, July 1998. [PDF, 98KB]

(1998) Rosemarie Sauer-Stipperger: SYSTRAN funnies. Terminologie et Traduction, 1.1998; pp.327-329. [PDF, 22KB]

(1997) Martin Kay: Machine translation: the disappointing past and present. In: Giovanni Battista Varile & Antonio Zampolli (eds.) Survey of the state of the art in human language technology (Pisa: Giardini), pp. 248-250. [PDF, 105KB]

(1997) Fred Klein: Machine translation – mystery, misery or miracle. TC-Forum, 4-97, December 1997. [PDF, 87KB]

(1996) Ian Gordon: Letting the CAT out of the bag – or was it MT?  Translating and the Computer 18. Papers from the Aslib conference held on 14 & 15 November 1996 (London: Aslib, 1996); 9pp. [PDF, 45KB]

(1995) Christian Boitet: Factors for success (and failure) in machine translation – some lessons of the first 50 years of R&D MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 17pp. [PDF, 322KB]

(1995) John Hutchins: “The whiskey was invisible”, or persistent myths of MT. MT News International 11 (June 1995), 17-18. [PDF, 92KB]

(1995) Elliott Macklovitch: The future of MT is now and Bar-Hillel was (almost entirely) right. In: BISFAI’95: Proceedings [of] The Fourth Bar-Ilan Symposium on Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Moshe Koppel & Eli Shamir, June 20-22, 1995, Ramat Gat and Jerusalem, Israel (Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press, 1996); pp.137-148. [PDF, 64KB]

(1995) Alan K. Melby: Why can't a computer translate more like a person? [Unpublished] 18pp. [PDF, 217KB]

 (1995) William J.Niven: Machine-friendly or reader-friendly? Language International 7 (6), 1995; pp.4-10. [PDF, 309KB]

 (1995) Jun’ichi Tsujii: Machine translation: productivity and conventionality of language. In: Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing: selected papers from RANLP ’95, ed. Ruslan Mitkov & Nicolas Nikolov, John Benjamins Publ.Co.: Amsterdam/Philadelphia, 1997; pp.377-392. [PDF, 406KB]

(1994) David J. Littleboy: Japanese MT: not a trivial pursuit. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.24, November-December 1994; p.8. [PDF, 78KB]

(1994) Yorick Wilks: Stone soup and the French room.  In: Current issues in computational linguistics: in honour of Don Walker, ed. Antonio Zampolli, Nicoletta Calzolari, Martha Palmer (Linguistica Computazionale, vol. 9-10); Pisa: Giradini Editori; Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press, [1994]; pp.585-594. [PDF, 54 KB] Repr. in: Khurshid Ahmad, Christopher Brewster, & Mark Stevenson (eds.) Words and intelligence I: selected papers by Yorick Wilks (Dordrecht: Springer, 2007); pp.255-265; and in: Yorick Wilks: Machine translation: its scope and limits (New York; Springer, 2009), pp.101-113.

(1993) Seamus Derrington: MT - myth, muddle or reality. Machine Translation Today: Translating and the Computer 15. Papers presented at a conference… 18-19 November 1993, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1993); pp.19-22. [PDF, 79KB]

(1992) Alex Gross: Limitations of computers as translation tools.  In: John Newton (ed.) Computers in translation: a practical appraisal (London: Routledge, 1992),; pp.96-130.

(1992) Yorick Wilks: SYSTRAN: it obviously works but how much can it be improved? In: John Newton (ed.) Computers in translation: a practical appraisal . (London: Routledge, 1992); pp.166-188. Repr. in: Yorick Wilks: Machine translation: its scope and limits (New York: Springer, 2009), pp.101-113.

(1991) Jacques Durand: On evaluating MT systems.  Translating and the Computer 13: The Theory and Practice of Machine Translation – A Marriage of Convenience? Papers presented at a conference… 28-29 November 1991, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1992); pp.81-92. [PDF, 73KB]

(1991) R.Lee Humphreys: From evaluation to specification. Translating and the Computer 13: The Theory and Practice of Machine Translation – A Marriage of Convenience? Papers presented at a conference… 28-29 November 1991, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1992); pp.93-104. [PDF, 65KB]

(1991) W. John Hutchins: Why computers do not translate better. Translating and the Computer 13: The Theory and Practice of Machine Translation – A Marriage of Convenience? Papers presented at a conference… 28-29 November 1991, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1992); pp.3-16. [PDF, 86KB]

(1990 [approx.]) Martin Kay. Machine translation. [Palo Alto, CA: Xerox Palo Alto Research Center [no date]; copied from website of Linguistics Society of America.] [PDF,  88KB]

(1990) Jun-ichi Tsujii: Machine translation and machine-aided translation – what’s going on. Translating and the Computer 12: Applying technology in the translation process, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 8-9 November 1990, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1991); pp. 3-24. [PDF, 101KB]

(1990) Paola Velardi: Why human translators still sleep in peace? (Four engineering and linguistic gaps in NLP). Coling-90: Papers presented to the 13th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Helsinki, 20-25 August 1990; ed. Hans Karlgren; vol.2, pp. 383-388. [PDF, 512KB]

(1990) Saskatchewan MT scam. Electric Word 17, January-February 1990; p.9. [PDF, 189KB]

Future prospects and predictions (see also Proposed systems)

(1999) Christian Boitet: A research perspective on how to democratize machine translation and translation aids aiming at high quality final output.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.125-133. [PDF, 200KB]

(1999) Bert Esselink: The end of translation as we know it. Language International 11 (6), December 1999; pp.28-30. [PDF, 765KB]

(1999) John Hutchins: Retrospect and prospect in computer-based translation.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 30-34. [PDF, 142KB]

(1999) W.John Hutchins: On assuming the presidency of IAMT [address at] MT Summit VII, Singapore, September 16, 1999. In: MT News International no.23, September 1999. [PDF]

(1999) Hitoshi Iida: Prospects for advanced speech translation. Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.107-113. [PDF, 166KB]

 (1999) Andrew Joscelyne: Millennium-ready? Are we entering the century where language automation becomes a reality?  Language International 11 (6), December 1999; pp.31-33. [PDF, 159KB]

(1999) Jo Lernout: The present and future of SAIL technologies (speech artificial intelligence & language).  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 21-29. [PDF from PPT, 395KB]

(1999) Elliott Macklovitch: Regional survey: M(A)T in North America. Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.73-79. [PDF, 153KB]

(1999) Sharon O’Brien: Translation technology – the next generation. Translating and the Computer 21. Proceedings of the Twenty-first International Conference…10-11 November 1999 (London: Aslib, 1999); 9pp. [PDF, 46KB]

(1999) Toru Nishigaki: What can MT do for multilingualism on the Net? Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 15-20. [PDF, 147KB]

(1999) Hozumi Tanaka: What should we do next for MT system development? Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 3-8. [PDF, 165KB]

(1999) Jun-ichi Tsujii: Machine translation for the next century.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.175-176. [PDF, 81KB]

 (1998) Matthias Heyn: Translation memories: insights and prospects. In: Unity in diversity? Current trends in translation studies, ed. Lynn Bowker, Michael Cronin, Dorothy Kenny and Jennifer Pearson (Manchester: St Jerome Publishing, 1998); pp.123-136. [PDF, 85KB]

(1998) Jens Thomas Lück: Translation in the next century: a future vision.  Translating and the Computer 20. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference…12-13 November 1998 (London: Aslib, 1998); 6pp. [PDF, 41KB]

(1998) Steve McLaughlin & Ulrike Schwall: Horses for courses: changing user acceptance of machine translation. Translating and the Computer 20. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference…12-13 November 1998 (London: Aslib, 1998); 12pp. [PDF, 96KB]

(1998) Steve McLaughlin & Ulrike Schwall: Spicing up the information soup: machine translation and the Internet. Machine translation and the information soup: third conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, AMTA '98, Langhorne, PA,USA, October 1998; ed. David Farwell, Laurie Gerber, Eduard Hovy (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1998); pp.384-397. [go to publisher details]

 (1998) Dream on: the Language International New Year’s Tech and Tools wish list. Language International 10 (6), 1998; pp.12-14. [PDF, 136KB]

 (1998) A word with Steven Pinker [interview]. Language International 10 (6), 1998; pp.22-23. [PDF, 103KB]

(1997) Christian Boitet: (Human-aided) machine translation: a better future? In: Giovanni Battista Varile & Antonio Zampolli (eds.) Survey of the state of the art in human language technology (Pisa: Giardini), pp. 251-257. [PDF, 137KB]

 (1997) Colin Brace: Future tense for Euro Systran. Language International 9 (3), 1997; pp.14-17. [PDF, 157KB]

 (1997) John Freivalds: Machine translation at the crossroads. Language International 9 (4), 1997; pp.34-35, 44. [PDF, 110KB]

(1997) Laurie Gerber: R&D for commercial MT. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 94-97 [PDF, 104KB]

(1997) Bente Maegaard: Whither MT? MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 191-199 [PDF, 128KB]

 (1997) Minako O’Hagan: Teletranslation comes of age. Language International 9 (4), 1997; pp.14-15, 44. [PDF, 137KB]

(1997) Klaus Schubert: Remote-access translation services: software design with the user in focus.  Translating and the Computer 19. Papers from the Aslib conference held on 13 & 14 November 1997 (London: Aslib, 1997); 25pp. [PDF, 205KB]

(1996) Kevin Knight: Will computers in the future speak English to each other? In: PREceedings of the Pre-Workshop on ILs and IL approaches to MT. [AMTA 1996 workshop, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October 1996]; pp.50-51.

(1996) Alan K.Melby: Building machine translation on a firm foundation. Translating and the Computer 18. Papers from the Aslib conference held on 14 & 15 November 1996 (London: Aslib, 1996); 10pp. [PDF, 69KB]

(1996) The limits of automation: optimists vs skeptics. Panel at the Second Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 2-5 October 1996, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Washington, DC: AMTA); pp.224-228 [PDF, 114KB]

(1996) Next steps in MT research. Panel at the Second Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 2-5 October 1996, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Washington, DC: AMTA); pp.233-237 [PDF, 111KB]

(1995) Christian Boitet: Factors for success (and failure) in machine translation – some lessons of the first 50 years of R&D MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 17pp. [PDF, 322KB]

(1995) Elliott Macklovitch: The future of MT is now and Bar-Hillel was (almost entirely) right. In: BISFAI’95: Proceedings [of] The Fourth Bar-Ilan Symposium on Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Moshe Koppel & Eli Shamir, June 20-22, 1995, Ramat Gat and Jerusalem, Israel (Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press, 1996); pp.137-148. [PDF, 64KB]

(1995) Makoto Nagao: What have we to do for the future of MT systems? MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 1p.[abstract only] [PDF, 39KB]

(1995) Sergei Nirenburg: Bar Hillel and machine translation: then and now. In: BISFAI’95: Proceedings [of] The Fourth Bar-Ilan Symposium on Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Moshe Koppel & Eli Shamir, June 20-22, 1995, Ramat Gat and Jerusalem, Israel (Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press, 1996); pp.137-148. [PDF, 42KB]

(1994) George Doddington: Summation and plans. ARPA Workshop on Machine Translation, 17-18 March 1994, Sheraton Premier Hotel at Tyson’s Corner, Vienna; 4 slides [PDF, 36KB]

(1994) John Hutchins: A new era in machine translation research. Translating and the Computer 16. Papers presented at a conference… 10-11 November 1994, Institution of Civil Engineers, London SW1 (London: Aslib, 1994); pp.1-13. [PDF, 134KB]

(1994) Alan Melby: Machine translation and philosophy of language. International conference “Machine translation: ten years on” Proceedings ... held at Cranfield University, England, 12-14 November 1994 (Cranfield University Press, 1998) [PDF, 143KB]

(1994) Minako O’Hagan: Translating in cyberspace: the coming industry of teletranslation. Translating and the Computer 16. Papers presented at a conference… 10-11 November 1994, Institution of Civil Engineers, London SW1 (London: Aslib, 1994); pp.89-98. [PDF, 44KB]

(1994) Alfred Vella & Dominic Vella: The implications of machine translation. International conference “Machine translation: ten years on” Proceedings ... held at Cranfield University, England, 12-14 November 1994 (Cranfield University Press, 1998) [PDF, 87KB]

(1994) Yorick Wilks: Stone soup and the French room.  In: Current issues in computational linguistics: in honour of Don Walker, ed. Antonio Zampolli, Nicoletta Calzolari, Martha Palmer (Linguistica Computazionale, vol. 9-10); Pisa: Giradini Editori; Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press, [1994]; pp.585-594. [PDF, 54 KB] Repr. in: Khurshid Ahmad, Christopher Brewster, & Mark Stevenson (eds.) Words and intelligence I: selected papers by Yorick Wilks (Dordrecht: Springer, 2007); pp.255-265; and in: Yorick Wilks: Machine translation: its scope and limits (New York; Springer, 2009), pp.101-113.

(1994) Future directions. Panel at the First Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 5-8 October 1994, Columbia, Maryland, USA (Washington, DC: AMTA); pp.223-224 [PDF, 69KB]

(1993) Ch. Boitet: Practical speech translation systems will integrate human expertise, multimodal communication, and interactive disambiguation MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.173-176 [PDF, 141KB]

(1993) Low Hwee-Boon: Some lessons learnt by a new comer MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.181-187 [PDF, 169KB]

(1993) Makoto Nagao : Machine translation: what have we to do? MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.3-7 [PDF, 114KB]

(1993) Sergei Nirenburg: A direction of MT development MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.189-193 [PDF, 115KB]

(1993) Christian Rohrer: The future of MT technology MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.195-196 [PDF, 85KB]

(1993) Hozumi Tanaka: Multi-lingual machine translation systems in the future.  In: Sergei Nirenburg (ed.) Progress in machine translation (Amsterdam, Oxford, Washington, DC: IOS Press; Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1993), pp. 29-32. [PDF, 109KB]

(1993) Jun-Ichi Tsujii: After linguistics-based MT MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.197-198 [PDF, 87KB]

(1993) Yorick Wilks: Corpora and machine translation MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.137-145 [PDF, 151KB]

(1992) Alex Gross: Limitations of computers as translation tools.  In: John Newton (ed.) Computers in translation: a practical appraisal (London: Routledge, 1992),; pp.96-130.

(1992) Sergei Nirenburg, Satoru Ikehara, Bonnie Dorr, Virginia Teller, Masaru Tomita, Alan Melby, Margaret King, Makoto Nagao, Scott Bennett, Eduard Hovy: [contributions to panel] Future directions in MT [with discussion]. In: MT evaluation: basis for future directions. Proceedings of a workshop..., 2-3 November 1992, San Diego, California; pp. 81-88 [PDF, 157KB]

(1991) Makoto Nagao: Current practical machine translation systems in Japan and future directions. Translating and the Computer 13: The Theory and Practice of Machine Translation – A Marriage of Convenience? Papers presented at a conference… 28-29 November 1991, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1992); pp.129-136. [PDF, 56KB]

(1991) Muriel Vasconcellos: Machine translation and the language barrier. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization, [1991. Not published] 38pp. [PDF, 3154KB]

 (1991) Congressional inquiry into MT. Language International 3 (1), February 1991; pp.11-12. [PDF, 82KB]

(1990) Paola Velardi: Why human translators still sleep in peace? (Four engineering and linguistic gaps in NLP). Coling-90: Papers presented to the 13th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Helsinki, 20-25 August 1990; ed. Hans Karlgren; vol.2, pp. 383-388. [PDF, 512KB]

(1990 [approx.]) Martin Kay. Machine translation. [Palo Alto, CA: Xerox Palo Alto Research Center [no date]; copied from website of Linguistics Society of America.] [PDF,  88KB]

(1990) Yorick Wilks, Jaime Carbonell, David Farwell, Eduard Hovy, & Sergei Nirenburg: Machine translation again?  Speech and Natural Language: proceedings of a workshop held at Hidden Valley, Pennsylvania, USA, June 24-27, 1990. (San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1990); pp. 371-378. [PDF, 1196KB]

General (non-specialist) articles [see also Failures of MT]

(1998) Jon Dorbolo: Machine translation. APA Newsletters, vol.97, no.2, Spring 1998. 2pp. [PDF, 93KB]

 (1990) Mohammed Didaoui: UN translators in the 1990s and beyond: a new profile. Language International 2 (3), June 1990; pp.20-22. [PDF, 166KB]

(1990) Cynthia Guttman: Europe’s last word in machine translation.  International Herald Tribune, March 23, 1990; p.20. [PDF, 32KB]

(1990) Gregory Zaretsky: What’s new in machine translation. Communication World, August 1990, [n.pp.] [PDF, 97KB]

General methodology (see also Theoretical aspects)

(1999) Zaharin Yusoff: MT from the research perspective. Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.143-145. [PDF, 107KB]

(1998) Michael Carl: Meaning preservation in machine translation Proceedings of the 10th European Summer School on Logic, Linguistics and Information (ESSLLI), Saarbrücken, 24-28 August 1998: Workshop on machine translation. [PDF, 152KB]

(1998) Bonnie J.Dorr, Pamela W.Jordan, & John W.Benoit: A survey of current paradigms in machine translation. (College Park, MD: Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, December 1998); 61pp. [PDF, 2115KB]

(1998) Pius ten Hacken: Science and technology in machine translation. Proceedings of the 10th European Summer School on Logic, Linguistics and Information (ESSLLI), Saarbrücken, 24-28 August 1998: Workshop on machine translation. [PDF, 133KB]

 (1998) W.John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. Part 2 – Warren Weaver’s 1949 memorandum.  Language Today 6, March 1998; pp.22-23. [PDF, 1462KB]

(1997) Makoto Nagao: Machine translation through language understanding. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 41-49 [PDF, 132KB]

(1996) Stephen Helmreich & David Farwell: Translation differences and pragmatics-based MT. Expanding MT horizons: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 2-5 October 1996, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Washington, DC: AMTA); pp.43-55 [PDF, 162KB]

(1994) Nadia Mesli: Interlingua vs. transfer? Knowledge sharing across projects. Technology partnerships for crossing the language barrier: Proceedings of the First Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas,5-8 October, Columbia, Maryland, USA. [Washington, DC: AMTA]; pp. 169-176. [PDF, 171KB]

(1993) Low Hwee-Boon: Some lessons learnt by a new comer MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.181-187 [PDF, 169KB]

(1993) Yorick Wilks: Corpora and machine translation MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.137-145 [PDF, 151KB]

(1993) Yorick Wilks: Developments in MT research in the US. Machine Translation Today: Translating and the Computer 15. Papers presented at a conference… 18-19 November 1993, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1993); pp.1-17. [PDF, 105KB]

(1992) Jaime G. Carbonell, Teruko Mitamura, & Eric H. Nyberg, 3rd: The KANT perspective: a critique of pure transfer (and pure interlingua, pure statistics, .. ) Fourth International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation (TMI-92), Empiricist vs. rationalist methods in MT, June 25-27, 1992, Montreal, CCRIT-CWARC; pp.225-235. [PDF, 180KB]

(1992) Makoto Nagao: Are the grammars so far developed appropriate to recognize the real structure of a sentence? Fourth International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation (TMI-92), Empiricist vs. rationalist methods in MT, June 25-27, 1992, Montreal, CCRIT-CWARC; pp.127-137. [PDF, 168KB]

(1990) John McNaught: Introduction. Proceedings of a Workshop on Machine Translation, 2-3 July 1990, UMIST, Manchester, ed.J.McNaught; 6pp.. [PDF, 132KB]

Government policy and MT  (see also Research policy and surveys)

(1999) Jo Edwards: Focus on human language technologies. Language Today 17, March 1999; pp.14-15. [PDF, 2020KB]

(1999) Antonio Sanfilippo, Shuo Bai, Roberto Cencioni, Akira Izumi, Gary Strong, & Dimitri Theologitis: Human language technologies for the information society: role, plans and visions of funding agencies.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 191-193. [PDF, 167KB]

(1997) Roger Havenith: MT research and development (R&D) in Europe. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 64-73 [PDF, 179KB]

(1997) Thomas R. Pedtke: U.S. government support and use of machine translation: current status MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 14-23 [PDF, 136KB]

(1997) Loll Rolling: The emergence of MT in Europe. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 39-40 [PDF, 78KB]

(1996) John Hutchins: ALPAC: the (in)famous report. MT News International 14 (June 1996), 15-21. [PDF, 110KB]

(1995) Roberto Cencioni: Language engineering and the Commission MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 1p. [abstract only] [PDF, 68KB]

(1995) Zaharin Yusoff: Towards a language information centre for Malay. MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 8pp. [PDF, 249KB]

(1994) David Canter: The impact of enlargement on translation in Sweden: assessment and guesswork. Translating and the Computer 16. Paper presented … 10-11 November 1994, Institution of Civil Engineers, London SW1 (London: Aslib, 1994); 4pp. [PDF, 20KB]

(1994) Center for Sprogteknologi: thriving in Denmark. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.19, January-February 1994; p.3. [PDF, 83KB]

(1993) Jan-Michael Czermak: Government support for MT in Germany. In: Sergei Nirenburg (ed.) Progress in machine translation (Amsterdam, Oxford, Washington, DC: IOS Press; Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1993), pp. 199-201. [PDF, 98KB]

(1993) L. Rolling: E.C. language projects MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.97-115 [PDF, 381KB]

(1993) L. Rolling: [contribution to] Panel on international cooperation MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.221-222 [PDF, 78KB]

(1993) ARPA’s deep pockets. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.15, May-June 1993; pp.5-8. [PDF, 95KB]

(1993) Another boost from Luxembourg. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.18, November-December 1993; pp.4-5. [PDF, 101KB]

(1993) Europe’s linguistic superhighway. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.16, July-August 1993; pp.1-6. [PDF, 120KB]

(1993) Laying the foundation for a European linguistic infrastructure. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.16, July-August 1993; p.3. [PDF, 96KB]

(1991) see contributions to panel International views on MT.  MT Summit III.  Proceedings, July 1-4, 1991, Washington, DC, USA; pp. 129-130 [PDF, 95KB]

(1991) Andrew Joscelyne: Eurotra continues. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.4, July-August 1991; pp.3-4. [PDF, 94KB]

(1991) Tony Whitecomb: MT research revitalized from the Hague? Language Industry Monitor, issue no.3, May-June 1991; p.6. [PDF, 95KB]

(1991) Calling all Euro-lang engineers. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.5, September-October 1991; pp.6-7. [PDF, 95KB]

(1991) Congressional inquiry into MT. Language International 3 (1), February 1991; pp.11-12. [PDF, 82KB]

(1990) Geoffrey Kingscott: The Language International interview: Serge Perschke, head of the EC Eurotra project. Language International 2 (5), October 1990; pp.17-24. [PDF, 73KB]

(1990) Geoffrey Kingscott: SITE buys B’Vital: relaunch of French national MT project. Language International 2 (2), April 1990; pp.3-6. [PDF, 205KB]

Historical aspects

 (1999) Cay Dollerup: The translator who came in from the cold. [Interview with Ivan I.Oubine.] Language International 11 (1), February 1999; pp.38-40. [PDF, 166KB]

 (1999) John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. No 6: Bar-Hillel and the nonfeasibility of FAHQT. International Journal for Language and Documentation 1, September 1999; pp.20-21. [PDF, 652KB]

(1999) W.John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. No 5: The IBM-Georgetown demonstration, January 1954. Language Today 16, January 1999; pp.19-20. [PDF, 2513KB]

(1999) John Hutchins: Retrospect and prospect in computer-based translation.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 30-34. [PDF, 142KB]

(1999) John Hutchins: Warren Weaver memorandum, July 1949. MT News International issue 22 (vol.8 no.1), July 1999, pp.5-6, 15   [PDF, 103KB]

(1999) Hozumi Tanaka: What should we do next for MT system development? Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 3-8. [PDF, 165KB]

 (1998) Michael Blekhman: First-person singular. Language International 10 (4), 1998; pp.38-39. [PDF, 123KB]

(1998) Bonnie J.Dorr, Pamela W.Jordan, & John W.Benoit: A survey of current paradigms in machine translation. (College Park, MD: Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, December 1998); 61pp. [PDF, 2115KB]

(1998) W.John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. Part 4: The first machine translation conference, June 1952.  Language Today 13, October 1998; pp.12-13. [PDF, 672KB]

 (1998) W.John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. Part 3 – Bar-Hillel’s survey, 1951.  Language Today 8, May 1998; pp.22-23. [PDF, 1633KB]

(1998) Harold Somers: "New paradigms" in MT: the state of play now that the dust has settled. Proceedings of the 10th European Summer School on Logic, Linguistics and Information (ESSLLI), Saarbrücken, 24-28 August 1998: Workshop on machine translation. [PDF, 225KB]

(1998) John Hutchins: The origins of the translator's workstation. Machine Translation vol.13 (4), 1998, 287-307. [PDF, 170KB]

(1998) John Hutchins: Twenty years of Translating and the Computer. Translating and the Computer 20. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference…12-13 November 1998 (London: Aslib, 1998); 16pp. [PDF, 93KB]

 (1998) W.John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. Part 2 – Warren Weaver’s 1949 memorandum.  Language Today 6, March 1998; pp.22-23. [PDF, 1462KB]

 (1997) John Hutchins: Fifty years of the computer and translation. MT News International 16 (February 1997), 14-15. [PDF, 96KB]

(1997) John Hutchins: Fifty years of the computer and translation. In: Machine Translation Review, issue 6: October 1997; pp.22-24. [PDF, 21KB]

 (1997) John Hutchins: First steps in mechanical translation MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 14-23 [PDF, 156KB]; presentation [with some additional material], 31 slides. [PDF, 187KB]

(1997) John Hutchins: From first conception to first demonstration: the nascent years of machine translation, 1947-1954. A chronology. Machine Translation vol. 12 (3), 1997, pp. 195-252. [PDF, 315KB]

 (1997) John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. Part 1 – How it all began in 1947 and 1948.  Language Today 3, December 1997; pp.22-23. [PDF, 1678KB]

(1997) John Hutchins: Looking back to 1952: the first MT conference. TMI-97: proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation, July 23-25, 1997, St.John’s College, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA; pp.19-30. [PDF, 152KB]

 (1997) Andrew Joscelyne: Good in a crisis? [on history of MT]  Language International 9 (6), 1997; p.7. [PDF, 68KB]

(1997) Martin Kay: Machine translation: the disappointing past and present. In: Giovanni Battista Varile & Antonio Zampolli (eds.) Survey of the state of the art in human language technology (Pisa: Giardini), pp. 248-250. [PDF, 105KB]

(1997) Lev L.Nelyubin: A survey of machine translation in the former USSR. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 5(1), 125-138. [PDF, 62KB]

(1997) Bud Scott: The Logos story. [Logos Institute Press, 1997; with postscript 2007]; 14pp. [PDF, 68KB]

(1997) Panel: the pioneers of MT. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 24-40 [PDF, 197KB]

 (1996) John Hutchins: ALPAC: the (in)famous report. MT News International 14 (June 1996), 15-21. [PDF, 110KB]

(1996) Muriel Vasconcellos: Trends in machine translation and the forces that shape them. Opening address, Expanding MT horizons: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 2-5 October 1996, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Washington, DC: AMTA); 10pp. [PDF, 192KB]

(1995) Christian Boitet: Factors for success (and failure) in machine translation – some lessons of the first 50 years of R&D MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 17pp. [PDF, 322KB]

(1995) Jan Hajič: Machine translation in the Czech Republic: history, methods, systems MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 1p.[abstract only] [PDF, 106KB]

(1995) John Hutchins: “The whisky was invisible”, or persistent myths of MT, [PDF, 92KB]. In: MT News International no.11, May 1995

(1995) John Hutchins: Reflections on the history and present state of machine translation MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 8pp. [PDF, 133KB]

(1995) Bente Maegaard: Eurotra, history and results MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 4pp. [PDF, 97KB]

(1995) Sergei Nirenburg: Bar Hillel and machine translation: then and now. In: BISFAI’95: Proceedings [of] The Fourth Bar-Ilan Symposium on Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Moshe Koppel & Eli Shamir, June 20-22, 1995, Ramat Gat and Jerusalem, Israel (Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press, 1996); pp.137-148. [PDF, 42KB]

(1994) John Hutchins: The Georgetown-IBM demonstration, 7th January 1954. MT News International 8 (May 1994), 15-18. [PDF, 103KB]

(1994) John Hutchins: A new era in machine translation research. Translating and the Computer 16. Papers presented at a conference… 10-11 November 1994, Institution of Civil Engineers, London SW1 (London: Aslib, 1994); pp.1-13. [PDF, 134KB]

(1994) John Hutchins: Research methods and system designs in machine translation: a ten-year review, 1984-1994 International conference “Machine translation: ten years on” Proceedings ... held at Cranfield University, England, 12-14 November 1994 (Cranfield University Press, 1998) [PDF, 172KB]

(1994) Christine A. Montgomery: Paul L. Garvin (1919-1994): obituary. In: MT News International no.9, September 1994.

(1994) Karen Sparck Jones: Natural language processing: a historical review.  In: Current issues in computational linguistics: in honour of Don Walker, ed. Antonio Zampolli, Nicoletta Calzolari, Martha Palmer (Linguistica Computazionale, vol. 9-10); Pisa: Giradini Editori; Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press, [1994]; pp.3-16. [PDF, 75KB]

(1993) John Hutchins: The first MT patents. MT News International 5 (May 1993), 14-15. [PDF, 113KB]

(1993) Makoto Nagao: Machine translation: the Japanese experience. In: Sergei Nirenburg (ed.) Progress in machine translation (Amsterdam, Oxford, Washington, DC: IOS Press; Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1993), pp. 203-208. [PDF, 124KB]

(1993) Ian Pigott: Systran development at the EC Commission, 1976 to 1992. [Luxembourg: European Commission, May 1993] [PDF, 407KB]

(1992) John Hutchins: The first MT conference, 1952. MT News International 2 (May 1992), 11-12. [PDF, 96KB]

(1992) Jeanette Pugh: The story so far: an evaluation of machine translation in the world today. In: John Newton (ed.) Computers in translation: a practical appraisal (London: Routledge, 1992),; pp.14-32

(1991) Muriel Vasconcellos: Machine translation and the language barrier. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization, [1991. Not published] 38pp. [PDF, 3154KB]

 (1990) Mohammed Didaoui: UN translators in the 1990s and beyond: a new profile. Language International 2 (3), June 1990; pp.20-22. [PDF, 166KB]

(1990) W.John Hutchins: Out of the shadows: a retrospect of machine translation in the eighties. Terminologie et Traduction, 3.1990; pp. 275-292. [PDF, 83KB]

 (1990) Geoffrey Kingscott: The Language International interview: Serge Perschke, head of the EC Eurotra project. Language International 2 (5), October 1990; pp.17-24. [PDF, 73KB]

Introductions to MT

(1994) D.Arnold, L.Balkan, R.Lee Humphreys, S.Meijer, & L.Sadler: Machine translation: an introductory guide. Manchester/Oxford: NCC Blackwell, 1994. viii, 240pp. [PDF files]

(1992) W.John Hutchins & Harold L.Somers: An introduction to machine translation. London: Academic Press. xxi, 362pp.[PDF]

Language technology

 (1999) Jo Edwards: Focus on human language technologies. Language Today 17, March 1999; pp.14-15. [PDF, 2020KB]

 (1998) Sharon Denness: The doctor is in: language engineering gets a powerful new advocate: [interview with Tony Hartley]. Language International 10 (2), 1998; pp.40-41. [PDF, 117KB]

 (1998) Deborah Fry: Evaluating language technology: EAGLES II workshop on evaluation standards and resource sharing. Language Today 7, April 1998; pp.6-7. [PDF, 1559KB]

(1998) Christine Kamprath, Eric Adolphson, Teruko Mitamura, & Eric Nyberg: Controlled language for multilingual document production. CLAW 98: proceedings of the second international workshop on Controlled Language Applications, 21-22 May 1998, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; pp.51-61. [PDF, 333KB]

(1998) Geoffrey Kingscott: Lernout & Hauspie – determined to be the no.1. Language Today 9, June 1998; pp.5-9. [PDF, 9170KB]

 (1998) A word with Steven Pinker [interview]. Language International 10 (6), 1998; pp.22-23. [PDF, 103KB]

 (1996) John Hutchins: Second Language Engineering Convention, London, 16-18 October 1995.  In: MT News International no.13, February 1996. [PDF]

(1994) Helen McCready & Francoise Moreau-Johnson: Developments in voice and language technology.  Translating and the Computer 16. Papers presented at a conference… 10-11 November 1994, Institution of Civil Engineers, London SW1 (London: Aslib, 1994); pp.33-36. [PDF, 61KB]

 (1994) R.G.Piotrowski & Yuri Tambovtsev: Development of a linguistic automaton on the basis of statistics of speech. Literary and Linguistic Computing 9 (4), pp.291-294. [PDF, 161KB]

 (1994) Language Engineering Convention, Paris 6-7 July 1994.  In: MT News International no.9, September 1994. [PDF]

 (1993) Technology & Language in Europe 2000: the UK perspective. Symposium, London, 15 January 1993. British Computer Society Natural Language Translation Specialist Group, Newsletter no 21, April 1993; pp.9-10. [PDF, 59KB]

(1990) Brigitte Engelien: Language technology products in the European Market. Translating and the Computer 12: Applying technology in the translation process, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 8-9 November 1990, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1991); pp. 65-82. [PDF, 226KB]

(1990) Andrew Joscelyne: Company profile: Europe’s largest technical documentation company dives into langtech. Electric Word 18, March-April 1990; pp.38-43. [PDF, 3248KB]

Legal aspects

(1996) Edith Westfall: Legal implications of MT on-line. Contribution to panel What can we learn from users? at the Second Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 2-5 October 1996, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Washington, DC: AMTA); pp.231-232 [PDF, 105KB]

Obituaries

(1995) Wolfgang Saxon: David G.Hays, 66, a developer of language study by computer [obituary] New York Times, July 28, 1995. [PDF, 12KB]

(1994) Christine A. Montgomery: Paul L. Garvin (1919-1994): obituary. In: MT News International no.9, September 1994.

Organizations and associations (see also Collaboration)

(1996) Geoffrey  Kingscott: The European translation platform. Translating and the Computer 18. Papers from the Aslib conference held on 14 & 15 November 1996 (London: Aslib, 1996); 7pp. [PDF, 89KB]

Patents relating to MT

(1996) News from Toltran: patent granted. In: MT News International no.14, June 1996. [PDF]

(1994) Leighton Chong: The U.S. Patent system and MT technology. In: MT News International no.7, January 1994

(1993) John Hutchins: The first MT patents. MT News International 5 (May 1993), 14-15. [PDF, 113KB]

Research (general) (see also General methodology)

(1996) Next steps in MT research. Panel at the Second Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 2-5 October 1996, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Washington, DC: AMTA); pp.233-237 [PDF, 111KB]

(1994) Is MT research doing any good? Panel at the First Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 5-8 October 1994, Columbia, Maryland, USA (Washington, DC: AMTA); pp.214-216 [PDF, 100KB]

(1992) Tony Whitecomb: Statistical methods gaining ground. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.11, Sept-Oct 1992; pp.1-3. [PDF, 106KB]

Research policy and surveys (see also Government and MT policy)

(1999) W.John Hutchins: On assuming the presidency of IAMT [address at] MT Summit VII, Singapore, September 16, 1999. In: MT News International no.23, September 1999. [PDF]

(1997) Roger Havenith: MT research and development (R&D) in Europe. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 64-73 [PDF, 179KB]

(1993) Alex Waibel: Machine translation. [Summary of Session 6]. Human Language Technology: proceedings of a workshop held at Plainsboro, New Jersey, USA, March 21-24, 1993. (San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1993); pp.183-184. [PDF, 272KB]

(1991) Sture Allen: MT evaluation from the standpoint of a research sponsor [contribution to panel] Evaluation of MT systems.  MT Summit III.  Proceedings, July 1-4, 1991, Washington, DC, USA; pp. 144-145

(1991) Nicholas Ostler: [contribution to panel] International views on MT.  MT Summit III.  Proceedings, July 1-4, 1991, Washington, DC, USA; pp. 129-130

(1990) Danzin report is out – new assessment of Eurotra. Language International 2 (4), August 1990; p.5. [PDF, 60KB]

Social and cultural aspects

(1999) Christian Boitet: A research perspective on how to democratize machine translation and translation aids aiming at high quality final output.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.125-133. [PDF, 200KB]

(1999) Nicholas Ostler: “The limits of my language mean the limits of my world”: is machine translation a cultural threat to anyone? [extended abstract]  Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation (TMI 99), August 23-25, 1999, University College, Chester, England; pp. 172-173 [PDF, 99KB]

(1999) Antonio Sanfilippo, Shuo Bai, Roberto Cencioni, Akira Izumi, Gary Strong, & Dimitri Theologitis: Human language technologies for the information society: role, plans and visions of funding agencies.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 191-193. [PDF, 167KB]

Software reviews

(1999) Heather Morgan & Bob Clark: Peresonal Translator 2000 Office Plus – review. International Journal for Language and Documentation 1, September 1999; pp.26-29. [PDF, 4183KB]

Standards for MT

(1998) Eduard Hovy: Combining and standardizing large-scale, practical ontologies for machine translation and other uses. First International Conference on Language Resources & Evaluation, Granada, Spain, 28-30 May 1998. Proceedings ed. Antonio Rubio, Natividad Gallardo, Rosa Castro and Antonio Tejada; pp.535-542. [PDF, 83KB]

(1998) Alan Melby: Behind the scenes: data exchange standards… Language International 10 (6), 1998; pp.30-31, 43. [PDF, 161KB]

(1997) Shin-ichiro Kamei, Etsuo Itoh, Mikiko Fujii, Tokuyuki Hirai, Yukari Saitoh, Masashito Takahashi, Tsutomu Hiyama, & Kazunori Muraki: Sharable formats and their suporting environments for exchanging user dictionaries among different MT systems as part of AAMT activities. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 132-141 [PDF, 160KB]

(1997) Klaus-Dirk Schmitz & Sue Ellen Wright: MARTIF: new ISO standard for translation. Language International 9 (2), 1997; pp.18, 23. [PDF, 91KB]

(1997) Gr.Thurmair: Exchange interfaces for translation tools. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 74-93 [PDF, 241KB]

(1995) Christian Galinski: Terminology and standardization under a machine translation perspective MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 11pp. [PDF, 200KB]

(1993) EAGLES: stretching its wings. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.15, May-June 1993; p.14. [PDF, 93KB]

(1993) Laying the foundation for a European linguistic infrastructure. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.16, July-August 1993; p.3. [PDF, 96KB]

(1991) Tony Whitecomb: Opening up Eurotra: trap or treasure-house? Language Industry Monitor, issue no.5, September-October 1991; p.5. [PDF, 76KB]

Surveys and reviews: general

(1999) John Hutchins: The development and use of machine translation systems and computer-based translation tools. International Conference on Machine Translation & Computer Language Information Processing, 26-28 June 1999, Beijing, China. Proceedings of the conference, editor: Chen Zhaoxiong, 1-16. [Beijing: Research Center of Computer & Language Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences.]  [PDF, 160KB] [Reprinted: International Journal of Translation 15 (1), Jan-June 2003; pp.5-26.]

(1999) John Hutchins: Retrospect and prospect in computer-based translation.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 30-34. [PDF, 142KB]

(1999) Hozumi Tanaka: What should we do next for MT system development? Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp. 3-8. [PDF, 165KB]

(1998) Sophia Ananiadou: Machine translation trends in Europe and Japan. Translating and the Computer 20. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference…12-13 November 1998 (London: Aslib, 1998); 7pp. [PDF, 76KB]

(1998) Bonnie J.Dorr, Pamela W.Jordan, & John W.Benoit: A survey of current paradigms in machine translation. (College Park, MD: Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, December 1998); 61pp. [PDF, 2115KB]

 (1998) W.John Hutchins: Milestones in machine translation. Part 3 – Bar-Hillel’s survey, 1951.  Language Today 8, May 1998; pp.22-23. [PDF, 1633KB]

(1998) John Hutchins: Translation technology and the translator. In: Machine Translation Review, issue 7: April 1998; pp.7-14. [PDF]

(1998) John Hutchins: Twenty years of Translating and the Computer. Translating and the Computer 20. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference…12-13 November 1998 (London: Aslib, 1998); 16pp. [PDF, 93KB]

 (1998) Derek Lewis: Machine translation today. The Linguist 37 (2); pp.38-43. [PDF, 281KB]

(1998) Yorick Wilks: Some notes on the state of the art: where are we now in MT, what works and what doesn’t? And the role of MT as an international collaborative activity. In: Machine Translation Review, issue 8: October 1998; pp.6-14. [PDF]

(1997) Martin Kay: Machine translation: the disappointing past and present. In: Giovanni Battista Varile & Antonio Zampolli (eds.) Survey of the state of the art in human language technology (Pisa: Giardini), pp. 248-250. [PDF, 105KB]

(1997) Bente Maegaard: Whither MT? MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 191-199 [PDF, 128KB]

(1997) Harold L. Somers: The current state of machine translation. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 115-124 [PDF, 101KB]

(1996) Colin Brace: Ovum’s translation tools report [part 1]. In: MT News International no.13, February 1996

(1996) Jackie Murgida: Ovum’s report on translation technology products, part II. In: MT News International no.14, June 1996.

(1996) Muriel Vasconcellos: Trends in machine translation and the forces that shape them. Opening address, Expanding MT horizons: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 2-5 October 1996, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Washington, DC: AMTA); 10pp. [PDF, 192KB]

(1995) Derek Lewis: Machine translation – ten years on: Cranfield conference report. In: Machine Translation Review, issue 1: April 1995; pp.10-17.

(1995) Elliott Macklovitch: The future of MT is now and Bar-Hillel was (almost entirely) right. In: BISFAI’95: Proceedings [of] The Fourth Bar-Ilan Symposium on Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Moshe Koppel & Eli Shamir, June 20-22, 1995, Ramat Gat and Jerusalem, Israel (Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press, 1996); pp.137-148. [PDF, 64KB]

(1995) Adriane Rinsche: Translation technology - a survey of latest product developments MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 1p. [abstract only] [PDF, 62KB]

(1995) Harold Somers: Problems with the second generation architecture and new trends in MT MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 1p. [abstract of tutorial]. [PDF, 80KB]

(1994) John Hutchins: Research methods and system designs in machine translation: a ten-year review, 1984-1994 International conference “Machine translation: ten years on” Proceedings ... held at Cranfield University, England, 12-14 November 1994 (Cranfield University Press, 1998) [PDF, 172KB]

(1994) John Hutchins: A new era in machine translation research. Translating and the Computer 16. Papers presented at a conference… 10-11 November 1994, Institution of Civil Engineers, London SW1 (London: Aslib, 1994); pp.1-13. [PDF, 134KB]

(1994) Derek Lewis: Machine translation – ten years on: an overview of the conference International conference “Machine translation: ten years on” Proceedings ... held at Cranfield University, England, 12-14 November 1994 (Cranfield University Press, 1998) [PDF, 118KB]

(1994) Yorick Wilks: Some notes on the state of the art: Where are we now in MT: what works and what doesn't? And the role MT as an international collaborative activity. International conference “Machine translation: ten years on” Proceedings ... held at Cranfield University, England, 12-14 November 1994 (Cranfield University Press, 1998) [PDF, 110KB]

(1993) John Hutchins: Latest developments in machine translation technology: beginning a new era in MT research MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.11-34 [PDF, 248KB]

(1993) Makoto Nagao : Machine translation: what have we to do? MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.3-7 [PDF, 114KB]

(1993) Muriel Vasconcellos: Machine translation: translating the languages of the world on a desktop computer comes of age. Byte, January 1993 (State of the Art); pp.153-164. [PDF, 850KB]

(1993) Muriel Vasconcellos: The present state of machine translation usage technology; or: How do I use thee? Let me count the ways MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.35-46 [PDF, 185KB]

(1993) A report on MT from the ATA. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.13, January-February 1993; p.12. [PDF, 85KB]

(1992) Jeanette Pugh: The story so far: an evaluation of machine translation in the world today. In: John Newton (ed.) Computers in translation: a practical appraisal (London: Routledge, 1992),; pp.14-32

(1992) Harold L.Somers: Current research in machine translation. In: John Newton (ed.) Computers in translation: a practical appraisal . (London: Routledge, 1992); pp.189-207.

(1991)  Jaime Carbonell: Machine translation. [Introduction to Session 3.] Speech and Natural Language: proceedings of a workshop held at Pacific Grove, California, USA, February 19-22, 1991. (San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1991); pp. 139-140. [PDF, 615KB]

(1991) W. John Hutchins: Why computers do not translate better. Translating and the Computer 13: The Theory and Practice of Machine Translation – A Marriage of Convenience? Papers presented at a conference… 28-29 November 1991, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1992); pp.3-16. [PDF, 86KB]

 (1991) W.John Hutchins & Geoffrey Kingscott: The ABC of machine translation – N-Z. Language International 3 (2), April 1991; pp.23-26. [PDF, 210 KB]

(1991) Muriel Vasconcellos: Machine translation and the language barrier. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization, [1991. Not published] 38pp. [PDF, 3154KB]

(1990) W.John Hutchins: Out of the shadows: a retrospect of machine translation in the eighties. Terminologie et Traduction, 3.1990; pp. 275-292. [PDF, 83KB]

 (1990) W.John Hutchins & Geoffrey Kingscott: The ABC of machine translation – A-D. Language International 2 (3), June 1990;pp.23-26. [PDF, 207KB]

 (1990) W.John Hutchins & Geoffrey Kingscott: The ABC of machine translation – E-M. Language International 2 (6), December 1990; pp.23-25. [PDF, 173KB]

(1990) Harold L. Somers: Current research in machine translation. Third international conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Language, 11-13 June 1990, Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas; pp.1-12. [PDF, 191KB]

(1990) Harold L.Somers: Current research in machine translation. Proceedings of a Workshop on Machine Translation, 2-3 July 1990, UMIST, Manchester, ed.J.McNaught; 12pp. [PDF, 93KB]

(1990) Jun-ichi Tsujii: Machine translation and machine-aided translation – what’s going on. Translating and the Computer 12: Applying technology in the translation process, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 8-9 November 1990, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1991); pp. 3-24. [PDF, 101KB]

(1990) Yorick Wilks, Jaime Carbonell, David Farwell, Eduard Hovy, & Sergei Nirenburg: Machine translation again?  Speech and Natural Language: proceedings of a workshop held at Hidden Valley, Pennsylvania, USA, June 24-27, 1990. (San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1990); pp. 371-378. [PDF, 1196KB]

Surveys and reviews: specific areas and countries

(1999) Lars Ahrenberg, Magnus Merkel, Daniel Ridings, Anna Sågvall Hein & Jörg Tiedemann. Automatic processing of parallel corpora: a Swedish perspective. Linköping Electronic Articles in Computer and Information Science, vol. 4 (1999), nr: 2, December 1999. 45pp. [PDF, 3449KB]

(1999) Hemant Darbari: Computer-assisted translation system – an Indian perspective.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.80-85. [PDF, 132KB]

(1999) Aiping Fu: The research and development of machine translation in China.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.86-91. [PDF, 153KB]

(1999) Elliott Macklovitch: Regional survey: M(A)T in North America. Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.73-79. [PDF, 153KB]

(1999) Se-Young Park & Gil-Rok Oh: Machine translation in Korea. Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.100-104. [PDF, 138KB]

(1999) Yoshiyuki Sakamoto & Minoru Moriguchi: Report on machine translation market in Japan.  Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.92-99. [PDF, 205KB]

(1999) Zaharin Yusoff: MT from the research perspective. Machine Translation Summit VII, 13th-17th September 1999, Kent Ridge Digital Labs, Singapore. Proceedings of MT Summit VII “MT in the Great Translation Era”; pp.143-145. [PDF, 107KB]

 (1998) Poul Andersen: Translation tools for the CEEC candidates for EU membership – an overview. Terminologie et Traduction, 1.1998; pp.140-166. [PDF, 136KB]

(1998) Vera Semenova: Russian resources in language engineering: evaluation and description. First International Conference on Language Resources & Evaluation, Granada, Spain, 28-30 May 1998. Proceedings ed. Antonio Rubio, Natividad Gallardo, Rosa Castro and Antonio Tejada; pp.1123-1127. [PDF, 50KB]

(1997) Roger Havenith: MT research and development (R&D) in Europe. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 64-73 [PDF, 179KB]

 (1997) William Lise: Machine translation—is it working in Japan? Language International 9 (1), 1997; pp.27, 34,35. [PDF, 88KB]

(1997)  Elliott Macklovitch: MT R&D in Canada. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 200-210 [PDF, 165KB]

(1997) Lev L.Nelyubin: A survey of machine translation in the former USSR. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 5(1), 125-138. [PDF, 62KB]

(1997) Hozumi Tanaka: MT R&D in Asia. MT Summit VI. Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future.  Proceedings, 29 October – 1 November 1997, San Diego, California, USA; pp. 156-164 [PDF, 186KB]

(1996) John Hutchins: The state of machine translation in Europe. Expanding MT horizons: Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, 2-5 October 1996, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Washington, DC: AMTA); pp.198-205 [PDF, 105KB]

(1996) Jörg Schütz: European research and development in machine translation. In: MT News International no.15, October 1996

(1995) Jan Hajič: Machine translation in the Czech Republic: history, methods, systems MT Summit V Proceedings, Luxembourg, July 10-13, 1995; 1p.[abstract only] [PDF, 106KB]

(1994) Eduard Hovy: Machine translation. [Introduction to] Session 4 [of] Human Language Technology: proceedings of a workshop held at Plainsboro, New Jersey, USA, March 8-11, 1994. (San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1994); pp. 133-134. [PDF, 1057KB]

(1994) Darmawan Sukmadjaja: Machine translation research in Indonesia. In: MT News International no.8, May 1994. [PDF]

(1993) Makoto Nagao: Machine translation: the Japanese experience. In: Sergei Nirenburg (ed.) Progress in machine translation (Amsterdam, Oxford, Washington, DC: IOS Press; Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1993), pp. 203-208. [PDF, 124KB]

(1993) Joseph Pentheroudakis: JTEC panel reports on MT in Japan. In: MT News International no.4, January 1993. [PDF]

(1993) L. Rolling: E.C. language projects MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.97-115 [PDF, 381KB]

(1993) Virach Sornlertlamvanich: MT research in Thailand and Linguistics and Knowledge Science Laboratory (LINKS). In: MT News International no.6, September 1993. [PDF]

(1993) Yang Tianxing: The R&D activities of MT in China MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.223-224 [PDF, 82KB]

(1993) Ahmad Zaki Abu Bakar: Utilization of machine translation in Malaysia MT Summit IV: International Cooperation for Global Communication. Proceedings, July 20-22, 1993, Kobe, Japan; pp.79-81 [PDF, 118KB]

(1993) Yorick Wilks: Developments in MT research in the US. Machine Translation Today: Translating and the Computer 15. Papers presented at a conference… 18-19 November 1993, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1993); pp.1-17. [PDF, 105KB]

 (1993) Focus on Japan. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.17, September-October 1993; pp.1-4. [PDF, 94KB]

(1992) Jan Hajič, Eva Hajičová, & Alexandr Rosen: Machine translation research in Czechoslovakia. Meta 37 (4), décembre 1992; pp.802-816. [note]

(1992) Eurotra Denmark: diversifying. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.7, January-February 1992; pp.5-6. [PDF, 84KB]

 (1992) Machine translation in Europe. British Computer Society Natural Language Translation Specialist Group, Newsletter no 20, Spring 1992; pp.8-10. [PDF]

 (1992) Machine translation in the UK. British Computer Society Natural Language Translation Specialist Group, Newsletter no 20, Spring 1992; pp.5-8. [PDF]

 (1992) Machine translation in the USA. British Computer Society Natural Language Translation Specialist Group, Newsletter no 20, Spring 1992; p.10. [PDF]

(1991) Makoto Nagao: Current practical machine translation systems in Japan and future directions. Translating and the Computer 13: The Theory and Practice of Machine Translation – A Marriage of Convenience? Papers presented at a conference… 28-29 November 1991, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1992); pp.129-136. [PDF, 56KB]

(1991) Tony Whitecomb: Japan’s chances in the great machine translation stakes. Language Industry Monitor, issue no.1, January-February 1991; pp.4-5. [PDF, 109KB]

(1991) S. Warwick-Armstrong: Machine translation in Europe.  Speech and Natural Language: proceedings of a workshop held at Pacific Grove, California, USA, February 19-22, 1991. (San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1991); pp. 28-33. [PDF, 1074KB]

 (1991) Machine translation in Europe. British Computer Society Natural Language Translation Specialist Group, Newsletter no 19, April 1991; pp.4-6. [PDF]

 (1991) Machine translation in the UK. British Computer Society Natural Language Translation Specialist Group, Newsletter no 19, April 1991; pp.3-4. [PDF]

 (1991) Machine translation in the USA. British Computer Society Natural Language Translation Specialist Group, Newsletter no 19, April 1991; p.6. [PDF]

(1990) Bogdan Chojna: Translation and computers; an overview of the Polish translation scene.  Translating and the Computer 12: Applying technology in the translation process, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 8-9 November 1990, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1991); pp. 27-31. [PDF, 25KB]

(1990) Cynthia Guttman: Europe’s last word in machine translation.  International Herald Tribune, March 23, 1990; p.20. [PDF, 32KB]

 (1990) Tony Whitcomb: Machine translation looks east. Electric Word 17, January-February 1990; p.11. [PDF, 171KB]

 (1990) Perestroika and machine translation in the USSR. Electric Word 18, March-April 1990; pp3-4. [PDF, 413KB]

Teaching MT

(1998) Mario J.Mira i Giménez & Mikel L.Forcada: Understanding commercial machine translation systems for evaluation, teaching, and reverse engineering: the treatment of noun phrases in Power Translator Deluxe. In: Machine Translation Review, issue 7: April 1998; pp.20-27. [PDF]

Theoretical aspects (see also General methodology)

(1999) Alan Melby: Machine translation and philosophy of language. In: Machine Translation Review, issue 9: April 1999; pp.6-17. [PDF]

 (1998) Paul Bennett: Machine translation as a model of human translation. In: Unity in diversity? Current trends in translation studies, ed. Lynn Bowker, Michael Cronin, Dorothy Kenny and Jennifer Pearson (Manchester: St Jerome Publishing, 1998); pp.157-166. [PDF, 63KB]

(1998) Michael Carl: Meaning preservation in machine translation Proceedings of the 10th European Summer School on Logic, Linguistics and Information (ESSLLI), Saarbrücken, 24-28 August 1998: Workshop on machine translation. [PDF, 152KB]

(1998) Pius ten Hacken: Science and technology in machine translation. Proceedings of the 10th European Summer School on Logic, Linguistics and Information (ESSLLI), Saarbrücken, 24-28 August 1998: Workshop on machine translation. [PDF, 133KB]

(1995) Alan K. Melby: Why can't a computer translate more like a person? [Unpublished] 18pp. [PDF, 217KB]

(1995) Sergei Nirenburg: Bar Hillel and machine translation: then and now. In: BISFAI’95: Proceedings [of] The Fourth Bar-Ilan Symposium on Foundations of Artificial Intelligence, ed. Moshe Koppel & Eli Shamir, June 20-22, 1995, Ramat Gat and Jerusalem, Israel (Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press, 1996); pp.137-148. [PDF, 42KB]

(1994) Alan Melby: Machine translation and philosophy of language. International conference “Machine translation: ten years on” Proceedings ... held at Cranfield University, England, 12-14 November 1994 (Cranfield University Press, 1998) [PDF, 143KB]

(1994) Yorick Wilks: Stone soup and the French room.  In: Current issues in computational linguistics: in honour of Don Walker, ed. Antonio Zampolli, Nicoletta Calzolari, Martha Palmer (Linguistica Computazionale, vol. 9-10); Pisa: Giradini Editori; Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press, [1994]; pp.585-594. [PDF, 54 KB] Repr. in: Khurshid Ahmad, Christopher Brewster, & Mark Stevenson (eds.) Words and intelligence I: selected papers by Yorick Wilks (Dordrecht: Springer, 2007); pp.255-265; and in: Yorick Wilks: Machine translation: its scope and limits (New York; Springer, 2009), pp.101-113.

(1993) Seamus Derrington: MT - myth, muddle or reality. Machine Translation Today: Translating and the Computer 15. Papers presented at a conference… 18-19 November 1993, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1993); pp.19-22. [PDF, 79KB]

(1993) Yorick Wilks: Developments in MT research in the US. Machine Translation Today: Translating and the Computer 15. Papers presented at a conference… 18-19 November 1993, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1993); pp.1-17. [PDF, 105KB]

(1992) Louisa Sadler: Rule-based translation as constraint resolution. International Workshop on Fundamental Research for the Future Generation of Natural Language Processing (FGNLP): Proceedings, 30-31 July 1992, Hotel Dominion, Manchester; Sofia Ananiadou, editor (Centre for Computational Linguistics, UMIST); pp.1-21. [PDF, 180KB]

(1990) Lori Levin: Syntactic theory and grammar design for machine translation. Third international conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Language, 11-13 June 1990, Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas; pp.109-120. [PDF, 162KB]

Theses and dissertations

(1990) Dan Walter Higinbotham: Semantic cooccurrence networks and the automatic resolution of lexical ambiguity in machine translation. Ph.D. thesis, University of Texas, December 1990. vii,270pp. [PDF, 308KB]

Translation theory

(1998) Robert Sprung: A word with Hofstadter: [interview]. Language International 10 (1), 1998; pp.32-36. [PDF, 245KB]

 (1998) Frank van Eynde: [review of] Machine translation and translation theory, Christa Hauenschild and Susanne Heizmann (eds.). Computational Linguistics 24 (3), pp. 516-519 [PDF, 312KB]

(1997) Christa Hauenschild & Susanne Heizmann (eds.) Machine translation and translation theory. [EAMT workshop, Hildesheim University, September 1994]. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997.

 (1996) Nicole Klingenburg: Technology impact assessment: translation studies and its contribution to MT evaluation [abstract]. In: Unity in diversity? International translation studies conference, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland, 9-11 May 1996; p.29. [PDF, 16KB]

 (1996) Jörg Schütz: Translation as communication: ontologies for supporting the process of translation [abstract]. In: Unity in diversity? International translation studies conference, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland, 9-11 May 1996; p.12. [PDF, 16KB]

 (1995) Susanne Heizmann: International Workshop on “Machine Translation & Translation Theory”, 14-16 September 1994, Hildesheim.  In: MT News International no.10, January 1995. [PDF]

(1992) Louis des Tombe: Is translation symmetric? Meta 37 (4), décembre 1992; pp.791-801. [note]