Machine Translation Archive

Index of Languages

Languages F to L: publications 1970-1989

[For languages A-D click here; for languages E click here; for languages M to Z click here]

[For publications before 1970 click here; for publications 1990-1999 click here; for publications 2000-2004 click here; for publications 2005-2009 click here; for publications since 2010 click here]

Finnish

(1989) Kalevi Tarvainen: A dependency syntax of Finnish. In: Dan Maxwell & Klaus Schubert (eds.): Metataxis in practice: dependency syntax for multilingual machine translation. Dordrecht: Foris Publications; pp.115-150.

(1988) Harri Jäppinen, Eero Lassila & Aarno Lehtola: Locally governed trees and dependency parsing. Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 22-27 August 1988, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; vol.1, pp.275-277. [PDF, 365KB]

French

(1988) Roy J.Byrd & Evelyne Tzoukermann: Adapting an English morphological analyzer for French. 26th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 7-10 June 1988, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA; pp.1-6. [PDF, 488KB]

(1985) Eric Wehrli: Design and implementation of a lexical data base.  Second conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 27-29 March 1985, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; pp. 73-78. [PDF, 684KB]

(1983) Veronica Lawson: The language of patents: a typology of patents, with particular reference to machine translation. Lebende Sprachen 28 (2), 58-61.

(1975) J. Chauche: The ATEF and CETA systems. American Journal of Computational Linguistics, microfiche 17; pp. 21-40. [PDF, 3453KB]

French to Danish

(1979) Bente Maegaard & Hanne Ruus: Structuring linguistic information for machine translation: the EUROTRA interface structure. In: Human translation, machine translation. Papers from the 10th annual Conference on Computational Linguistics in Odense, Denmark, 22-23 November 1979; ed. Suzanne Hanon and Viggo Hjørnager Pedersen (Odense Universitet, August 1980); pp. 159-169. [PDF, 85KB]

French to English

(1989) Claude Bédard: The return of low-linguistics MT. PC-Translator: can a low cost machine translator do the job? Language Technology/Electric Word 14, July-August 1989; p.55. [PDF, 238KB]

(1989) Pierre Isabelle: Towards reversible MT systems. MT Summit II, August 16-18, 1989, Munich, Germany [Frankfurt a.M.: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentations e.V.]; pp. 67-68 [PDF, 108KB]

 (1989) M.Moureau, G.Brace, & P.Boisserpe: IFP terminological databases and the compiling of specialised dictionaries.  Translating and the Computer 11: Preparing for the next decade, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 16-17 November 1989, The Conference Forum, The Sedgwick Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1990); pp.39-49. [PDF, 69KB]

(1989) Zaharin Yusoff: On formalisms and analysis, generation and synthesis in machine translation.  Fourth conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 10-12 April 1989, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, England; pp. 319-326. [PDF, 587KB]

(1988) P.Brown, J.Cocke, S.Della Pietra, V.Della Pietra, F.Jelinek, R.Mercer, & P.Roossin: A statistical approach to language translation. Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 22-27 August 1988, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; vol.1, pp.71-76. [PDF, 523KB]

(1988) P.Brown, J.Cocke, S.Della Pietra, V.Della Pietra, F.Jelinek, R.Mercer, & P.Roossin: A statistical approach to French/English translation. Second International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, June 12-14, 1988, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, [USA]; 16pp. [PDF, 322KB]

(1988) Chrysanne DiMarco & Graeme Hirst: Stylistic grammars in language translation. Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 22-27 August 1988, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; vol.1, pp.148-153. [PDF, 535KB]

(1988) Marc Dymetman & Pierre Isabelle: Reversible logic grammars for machine translation. Second International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, June 12-14, 1988, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, [USA]; 16pp. [PDF, 201KB]

(1988) Pierre Isabelle, Marc Dymetman, & Elliott Macklovitch: CRITTER: a translation system for agricultural market reports. Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 22-27 August 1988, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; vol.1, pp.261-266. [PDF, 95KB]

(1987) Alain Landry: The Termium termbank: today and tomorrow. Translating and the Computer 9: potential and practice, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 12-13 November 1987, CBI Conference Centre, Centre Point, London (London: Aslib, 1988); pp.130-144. [PDF, 121KB]

(1987) Ian M.Pigott: Machine translation dictionaries. Terminologie et Traduction, 3.1987; pp.13-19. [PDF, 32KB]

(1986) Christian Boitet: Current machine translation systems developed with GETA’s methodology and software tools.  Translating and the Computer 8: a profession on the move, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 13-14 November 1986, CBI Conference Centre, Centre Point, London (London: Aslib, 1987); pp.114-132. [PDF, 169KB]

(1986) Andrew D.C.Evans: Systran – the translator’s viewpoint. (World Systran Conference, 11-14 February 1986; Commisssion des Communautés Européennes, Luxembourg). Terminologie et Traduction, 1, 1986; pp.17-23. [PDF, 57KB]

 (1986) F.W.A.Habermann: Provision and use of raw machine translation. (World Systran Conference, 11-14 February 1986; Commisssion des Communautés Européennes, Luxembourg). Terminologie et Traduction, 1, 1986; pp.29-42. [PDF, 121KB]

(1986) Cay-Holger Stoll: The SYSTRAN system. International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.3-19. [PDF, 83KB]

 (1985) F.W.A.Habermann: MT with Systran at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center.  Terminologie et Traduction, 2, 1985; pp.1-8. [PDF, 83KB]

(1984) Linda Crombie-Talhami: Office automation and the Teleglobe experience. Translation and Communication: Translating and the Computer 6. Proceedings of a conference … 20-21 November 1984, The Waldorf Hotel, London; pp.95-104. [PDF, 44KB]

(1984) F.W.A.Habermann: Application of SYSTRAN for translation of nuclear technology texts at the Nuclear Center of Karlsruhe [abstract and slides]. International Conference on Methodology and Techniques of Machine Translation: processing from words to language… Cranfield, 13-15 February 1984, Natural Language Translation Specialist Group of the British Computer Society; 14pp. [PDF, 124KB]

(1984) Peter J.Wheeler: Changes and improvements to the European Commission’s Systran MT system 1976/84. Terminologie Bulletin 45; pp. 25-37. [PDF, 48KB]

 (1984) Peter J.Wheeler: Changes and improvements to the European Commisssion’s Systran system 1976/84. International Conference on Methodology and Techniques of Machine Translation: processing from words to language… Cranfield, 13-15 February 1984, Natural Language Translation Specialist Group of the British Computer Society; 12pp. [PDF, 48KB] [Printed in: Ian D.K.Kelly (ed.) Progress in machine translation: natural language and personal computers (Wilmslow, UK: Sigma Press, 1989); pp.69-82.]

(1983) Elizabeth Wagner: Rapid post-editing of Systran. Tools for the Trade: Translating and the Computer 5. Proceedings of a conference… 10-11 November 1983, London Press Centre, ed. Veronica Lawson. (London: Aslib, 1985); pp.199-213 [PDF, 98KB]

(1983) P.A.Walker: A Commission of the European Communities user looks at machine translation. Tools for the Trade: Translating and the Computer 5. Proceedings of a conference… 10-11 November 1983, London Press Centre, ed. Veronica Lawson. (London: Aslib, 1985); pp.145-163 [PDF, 105KB]

(1983) Peter Wheeler: The errant avocado. British Computer Society Natural Language Translation Specialist Group, Newsletter no 13, February 1983; 16pp.. [PDF, 287KB]

(1982) Bente Maegaard: The transfer of finite verb forms in a machine translation system. Coling 82 [Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Prague, July 5-10, 1982] Abstracts, edited by Eva Hajičová. Charles University, Prague, 1982; pp. 190-195. [PDF, 219KB]

(1981) Ian M. Pigott: The importance of feedback from translators in the development of high-quality machine translation. Practical experience of machine translation. Proceedings of a conference, London, 5-6 November 1981. Ed.Veronica Lawson (Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982); pp, 61-73. [PDF, 301KB]

(1981) Raw SYSTRAN output, (E-F, F-E, E-I), post-edited by Commission translators, autumn 1981; 7pp. [PDF, 227KB]

(1973) Morris Salkoff: On using semantic data in automatic syntactic analysis. Computational and mathematical linguistics: proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Pisa, 27/VIII – 1/IX 1973, editors: A.Zampolli, N.Calzolari (Firenze: Olschki, 1980) (Biblioteca dell’Archivum Romanicum, serie II: Linguistica, 37); vol.2, pp.385-395. [PDF, 350KB]

(1970) André R. Gouin: French to English machine translation system based upon digital computer software programs (Systran). MSc thesis, School of Engineering, Air Force Institute of technology, Air University (Wright-patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, [USA]), March 1970. xii, 41pp. (appendices omitted) [PDF, 4077KB]

French to German

(1989) Ch.Boitet: Motivations, aims and architecture of the LIDIA project.MT Summit II, August 16-18, 1989, Munich, Germany [Frankfurt a.M.: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentations e.V.]; pp. 52-54 [PDF, 122KB]

(1989) Margaret King: Using unification grammars for analysis and synthesis.  Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1989: “Language teaching, testing, and technology: lessons from the past with a view toward the future”, James E.Alatis, ed. (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1989); pp.364-371. [PDF, 37KB]

(1986) Axel Biewer, Christian Féneyrol, Johannes Ritzke, & Erwin Stegentritt: ASCOF – a modular multilevel system for French-German translation. International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.267-281. [PDF, 90KB]

(1986) Karl-Heinz Freigang: Research on machine translation at the University of Saarbrücken. Translating and the Computer 8: a profession on the move, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 13-14 November 1986, CBI Conference Centre, Centre Point, London (London: Aslib, 1987); pp.83-94. [PDF, 58KB]

(1985) Axel Biewer, Christian Féneyrol, Johannes Ritzke & Erwin Stegentritt: ASCOF -- a modular multilevel system for French-German translation.  Computational Linguistics 11 (2-3), pp. 137-154 [PDF, 1339KB] [Reprinted in: Jonathan Slocum (ed.) Machine translation systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988; pp. 49-84.]

(1977) H.D.Maas: The Saarbrücken automatic translation system (SUSY).  Overcoming the language barrier: third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Luxembourg, 3-6 May 1977, organised by the Commission of the European Communities (München: Verlag Dokumentation, 1977); vol.1, pp.586-592. [PDF, 101KB]

(1977) J. Weissenborn: The role and form of analysis in machine translation: the automatic analysis of French at Saarbrücken. Overcoming the language barrier: third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Luxembourg, 3-6 May 1977, organised by the Commission of the European Communities (München: Verlag Dokumentation, 1977); vol.1, pp.593-611. [PDF, 147KB]

French to Russian

(1989) Ch.Boitet: Motivations, aims and architecture of the LIDIA project.MT Summit II, August 16-18, 1989, Munich, Germany [Frankfurt a.M.: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentations e.V.]; pp. 52-54 [PDF, 122KB]

(1984) Yu.N.Marchuk: Machine translation in the U.S.S.R. Computers and the Humanities 18 (1), 39-46. [PDF, 121KB]

(1982) N.N.Leont’eva: Automatic translation through understanding and summarizing. Coling 82 [Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Prague, July 5-10, 1982] Abstracts, edited by Eva Hajičová. Charles University, Prague, 1982; pp. 178-181. [PDF, 130KB]

(1977) Yu.N.Marchuk: Machine translation in the All-Union Translation Centre. Overcoming the language barrier: third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Luxembourg, 3-6 May 1977, organised by the Commission of the European Communities (München: Verlag Dokumentation, 1977); vol.1, pp.623-624 . [PDF, 105KB]

German

(1989) Henning Lobin: A dependency syntax of German. In: Dan Maxwell & Klaus Schubert (eds.): Metataxis in practice: dependency syntax for multilingual machine translation. Dordrecht: Foris Publications; pp.17-38.

(1986) Johann Haller & Dieter Maas: Eurotra-D: linguistic research and software test systems for machine translation. International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.177-196. [PDF, 65KB]

(1986) Klaus Netter & Jürgen Wedekind: An LFG-based approach to machine translation. International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.199-209. [PDF, 203KB]

(1983) Veronica Lawson: The language of patents: a typology of patents, with particular reference to machine translation. Lebende Sprachen 28 (2), 58-61.

(1980) Werner Dilger: Automatic translation with attribute grammars. Coling 80: proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Sept.30 – Oct.4, 1980, Tokyo; pp. 397-404. [PDF, 530KB]

(1977) V.A.Moscovoj: On the elimination of formal word order in the German sentence.  Overcoming the language barrier: third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Luxembourg, 3-6 May 1977, organised by the Commission of the European Communities (München: Verlag Dokumentation, 1977); vol.1, pp.628-630. [PDF, 89KB]

(1973) Annely Rothkegel: Idioms in automatic language processing. Computational and mathematical linguistics: proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Pisa, 27/VIII – 1/IX 1973, editors: A.Zampolli, N.Calzolari (Firenze: Olschki, 1980) (Biblioteca dell’Archivum Romanicum, serie II: Linguistica, 37); vol.2, pp.713-728. [PDF, 270KB]

(1973) Wolfgang A. Slaby: A universal Braille translator. Computational and mathematical linguistics: proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Pisa, 27/VIII – 1/IX 1973, editors: A.Zampolli, xN.Calzolari (Firenze: Olschki, 1980) (Biblioteca dell’Archivum Romanicum, serie II: Linguistica, 37); vol.2, pp.825-835. [PDF, 246KB]

German to English

(1989) John A.Bateman, Robert T.Kasper, Jörg F.L.Schütz, & Eric H.Steiner: A new view on the process of translation. Fourth conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 10-12 April 1989, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, England; pp. 282-290. [PDF, 667KB]

(1989) Winfield S. Bennett: The place of semantics in MT systems. Literary and Linguistic Computing 4 (3),  pp.200-202. [PDF, 35KB]

(1989) Ralf Kohlrausch: Philips Kommunikations Industries. Language Technology/Electric Word 13, May-June 1989; p.57. [PDF, 393KB]

 (1989) Patrick Little: METAL – machine translation in practice.  Translating and the Computer 11: Preparing for the next decade, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 16-17 November 1989, The Conference Forum, The Sedgwick Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1990); pp.94-107. [PDF, 101KB]

 (1989) METAL translation heavies. .Language Technology/Electric Word 11, January-February 1989; pp.9-10. [PDF, 138KB]

(1986) Karl-Heinz Freigang: Research on machine translation at the University of Saarbrücken. Translating and the Computer 8: a profession on the move, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 13-14 November 1986, CBI Conference Centre, Centre Point, London (London: Aslib, 1987); pp.83-94. [PDF, 58KB]

(1986) Edith Kroupa: Multilingual aspects of reference information systems (MARIS). International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.227-241. [PDF, 83KB]

(1986) Jürgen Kunze: Transfer as a touchstone for analysis. International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.51-64. [PDF, 70КB]

(1986) G.William Moore, U.N.Riede, Richard A.Polacsek, Robert E.Miller, & Grover M.Hutchins: Automated translation of German to English medical text. The American Journal of Medicine, vol.81, July 1986; pp.103-111. [PDF, 395KB]

(1986) G.W.Moore, U.N.Riede, R.A.Polacsek, R.E.Miller, & G.M.Hutchins: Group theory approach to computer translation of medical German. Methods of Information in Medicine 25 (1986); pp.176-182. [PDF, 346KB]

(1986) Paul Schmidt: Valency theory in a stratificational MT-system. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 307-312. [PDF, 618KB]

 (1986) Jonathan Slocum: How one might automatically identify and adapt to a sublanguage: an initial exploration. In: Ralph Grishman [and] Richard Kittredge (eds.) Analyzing language in restricted domains: sublanguage description and processing (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1986); pp.195-210. [PDF, 145KB]

(1986) Peter Wheeler: The LOGOS translation system . International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.20-33. [PDF, 72KB]

(1985) Winfield S. Bennett & Jonathan Slocum: The LRC machine translation system.  Computational Linguistics 11 (2-3), pp. 111-121 [PDF, 1157KB] [Reprinted in: Jonathan Slocum (ed.) Machine translation systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988; pp. 111-140.]

(1985) Rebecca Root: A two-way approach to structural transfer in MT. Second conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 27-29 March 1985, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; pp. 70-72. [PDF, 261KB]

(1985) Jonathan Slocum, Winfield S. Bennett, Lesley Whiffin, & Edda Norcross: An evaluation of METAL: the LRC machine translation system.  Second conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 27-29 March 1985, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; pp. 62-69. [PDF, 812KB]

(1985) John S. White: Characteristics of the METAL machine translation system at production stage.  Proceedings of the Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York, August 14-16, 1985 [TMI-1985]; pp. 359-369. [PDF, 128KB]

(1984) Veronica Lawson: Users of machine translation system report increased output. Language Monthly 11, August 1984; pp.6-10. [PDF, 143KB]

(1984) Robert Ordish: Personal impressions of a machine translation system. The Incorporated Linguist vol.23, no.3, Summer 1984; pp.136-145. [PDF, 68KB]

 (1984) Jonathan Slocum: METAL: the LRC machine translation system.  In: Margaret King (ed.) Machine translation today: the state of the art. Proceedings of the Third Lugano Tutorial, Lugano, Switzerland, 2-7 April 1984 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1987); pp. 319-350.

(1983) Ralph E.Hawes: Logos: the intelligent translation system. Tools for the Trade: Translating and the Computer 5. Proceedings of a conference… 10-11 November 1983, London Press Centre, ed. Veronica Lawson. (London: Aslib, 1985); pp.131-139 [PDF, 34KB]

(1983) Jonathan Slocum: A status report on the LRC machine translation system. First conference on Applied Natural Language Processing [of] Association for Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, 1-3 February 1983, Miramar-Sheraton Hotel, Santa Monica, California, USA; pp. 166-173 [PDF, 701KB; original defective first page]]

(1983) Klaus E.Tschira: Looking back at a year of German-English MT with Logos. Tools for the Trade: Translating and the Computer 5. Proceedings of a conference… 10-11 November 1983, London Press Centre, ed. Veronica Lawson. (London: Aslib, 1985); pp.215-235 [PDF, 200KB]

(1982) Winfield S.Bennett: The LRC machine translation system: an overview of the linguistic component of METAL. Coling 82 [Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Prague, July 5-10, 1982] Abstracts, edited by Eva Hajičová. Charles University, Prague, 1982; pp. 29-31. [PDF, 108KB]

(1980) Jonathan Slocum: An experiment in machine translation. 18th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 19-22 June 1980, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; pp.163-164. [PDF, 191KB]

(1977) P. Canisius: Automatic partial translation in a multilingual information system.  Overcoming the language barrier: third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Luxembourg, 3-6 May 1977, organised by the Commission of the European Communities (München: Verlag Dokumentation, 1977); vol.1, pp.259-269. [PDF, 128KB]

(1977) Bernard E. Scott: Linguistic and computational motivations for the Logos machine translation system – an overview. Mt Arlington: Logos Corporation, 1977 rev. 1998. 40pp. Repr in: IAI Working Paper no.36, 2000. [PDF, 181KB]

(1973) Annette Stachowitz: Beyond the feasibility study: lexicographic progress.  Computational and mathematical linguistics: proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Pisa, 27/VIII – 1/IX 1973, editors: A.Zampolli, N.Calzolari (Firenze: Olschki, 1980) (Biblioteca dell’Archivum Romanicum, serie II: Linguistica, 36); vol.1, pp.323-335. [PDF, 600KB]

(1973) Rolf A. Stachowitz: Beyond the feasibility study: syntax and semantics.  Computational and mathematical linguistics: proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Pisa, 27/VIII – 1/IX 1973, editors: A.Zampolli, N.Calzolari (Firenze: Olschki, 1980) (Biblioteca dell’Archivum Romanicum, serie II: Linguistica, 37); vol.2, pp.837-848. [PDF, 144KB]

(1971) Annette Stachowitz: Analysis of Es liegt eine grosse Anzahl von Elementen vor. In: Feasibility study on fully automatic high quality translation. New York: Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss Air Force Base, December 1971; pp.356-366. [PDF, 160KB]

 (1971) Rolf Stachowitz: Lexical features in translation and paraphrasing: an experiment. In: Feasibility study on fully automatic high quality translation. New York: Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss Air Force Base, December 1971; pp.367-408. [PDF, 553KB]

(1971) L.Zgusta: The shape of the dictionary for mechanical translation purposes. In: Feasibility study on fully automatic high quality translation. New York: Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss Air Force Base, December 1971; pp.549-576. [PDF, 86KB]

German to French

(1989) Ronald M.Kaplan, Klaus Netter, Jürgen Wedekind, & Annie Zaenen: Translation by structural correspondences. Fourth conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 10-12 April 1989, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, England; pp. 272-281. [PDF, 845KB]

(1989) Margaret King: Using unification grammars for analysis and synthesis.  Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1989: “Language teaching, testing, and technology: lessons from the past with a view toward the future”, James E.Alatis, ed. (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1989); pp.364-371. [PDF, 37KB]

(1986) Christian Boitet: Current machine translation systems developed with GETA’s methodology and software tools.  Translating and the Computer 8: a profession on the move, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 13-14 November 1986, CBI Conference Centre, Centre Point, London (London: Aslib, 1987); pp.114-132. [PDF, 169KB]

(1986) Karl-Heinz Freigang: Research on machine translation at the University of Saarbrücken. Translating and the Computer 8: a profession on the move, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 13-14 November 1986, CBI Conference Centre, Centre Point, London (London: Aslib, 1987); pp.83-94. [PDF, 58KB]

(1984) Beat Buchmann, Susan Warwick, & Patrick Shann: Design of a machine translation system for a sublanguage. Coling84: 10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics & 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2-6 July 1984, Stanford University, California. Proceedings; pp.334-337. [PDF, 356KB]

 (1984) J.-P.Guilbaud: Principles and results of a German to French MT system at Grenoble University. In: Margaret King (ed.) Machine translation today: the state of the art. Proceedings of the Third Lugano Tutorial, Lugano, Switzerland, 2-7 April 1984 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1987); pp. 278-318.

German to Italian

(1984) Beat Buchmann, Susan Warwick, & Patrick Shann: Design of a machine translation system for a sublanguage. Coling84: 10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics & 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2-6 July 1984, Stanford University, California. Proceedings; pp.334-337. [PDF, 356KB]

German to Russian

(1984) Yu.N.Marchuk: Machine translation in the U.S.S.R. Computers and the Humanities 18 (1), 39-46. [PDF, 121KB]

(1984) Yu.N.Marchuk: Machine translation in the USSR. International Conference on Methodology and Techniques of Machine Translation: processing from words to language… Cranfield, 13-15 February 1984, Natural Language Translation Specialist Group of the British Computer Society; 15pp. [PDF, 49KB]. [Printed in: Ian D.K.Kelly (ed.) Progress in machine translation: natural language and personal computers (Wilmslow, UK: Sigma Press, 1989); pp.37-49.]

(1984) B.D.Tikhomirov: AMPAR and NERPA systems of machine translation: some specific features of software and technology.  International Conference on Methodology and Techniques of Machine Translation: processing from words to language… Cranfield, 13-15 February 1984, Natural Language Translation Specialist Group of the British Computer Society; 8pp. [PDF, 29KB]. [Printed in: Ian D.K.Kelly (ed.) Progress in machine translation: natural language and personal computers (Wilmslow, UK: Sigma Press, 1989); pp.51-57.]

(1984) B.D.Tikhomirov: Some specific features of software and technology in the AMPAR and NERPA systems of machine translation. International Forum on Information and Documentation, 1984, vol. 9 (2); 9-11. [PDF, 91KB]

(1977) Yu.N.Marchuk: Machine translation in the All-Union Translation Centre. Overcoming the language barrier: third European Congress on Information Systems and Networks, Luxembourg, 3-6 May 1977, organised by the Commission of the European Communities (München: Verlag Dokumentation, 1977); vol.1, pp.623-624 . [PDF, 105KB]

German to Spanish

(1988) Juan A. Alonso: A model for transfer control in the METAL MT-system. Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 22-27 August 1988, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; vol.1, pp.19-24. [PDF, 383KB]

Hebrew

(1982) Yig’al Yannai: Innovation and neologism in modern Hebrew. Term banks for tomorrow’s world: Translating and the Computer 4. Proceedings of a conference… 11-12 November 1982, London Press Centre, ed. Barbara Snell. (London: Aslib, 1983); pp. 31-39. [PDF, 174KB]

Hungarian

(1989) Gábor Prószeky,  Ilona Koutny, & Balázs Wacha: A dependency syntax of Hungarian. In: Dan Maxwell & Klaus Schubert (eds.): Metataxis in practice: dependency syntax for multilingual machine translation. Dordrecht: Foris Publications; pp.151-181.

(1988) Gábor Prószéky: Hungarian – a special challenge to machine translation? In: D.Maxwell, K.Schubert, & T.Witkam (eds.) New directions in machine translation. Conference proceedings, Budapest 18-19 August, 1988 (Dordrecht: Foris, 1988); pp.219-231. [note]

(1986) H.Jäppinen, A.Lehtola, & K.Vaikonen: Functional structures for parsing dependency constraints. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 461-463. [PDF, 267KB]

Indian languages

 (1982) Jayanta Ray: A review of terminological work being done in Indian languages. Term banks for tomorrow’s world: Translating and the Computer 4. Proceedings of a conference… 11-12 November 1982, London Press Centre, ed. Barbara Snell. (London: Aslib, 1983); pp.89-96. [PDF, 60KB]

Indonesian

(1989) Hozumi Tanaka, Shun Ishizaki, Akira Uehara, & Hiroshi Uchida: Research and development of cooperation project on a machine translation system for Japan and its neighboring countries. MT Summit II, August 16-18, 1989, Munich, Germany [Frankfurt a.M.: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentations e.V.]; pp. 146-151 [PDF, 95KB]

Italian to English

(1973) T.D.Crawford: A review of the Cardiff machine translation project. Computational and mathematical linguistics: proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Pisa, 27/VIII – 1/IX 1973, editors: A.Zampolli, N.Calzolari (Firenze: Olschki, 1980) (Biblioteca dell’Archivum Romanicum, serie II: Linguistica, 37); vol.2, pp.761-771. [PDF, 214KB]

Japanese

(1989) Shigeru Sato: A dependency syntax of Japanese. In: Dan Maxwell & Klaus Schubert (eds.): Metataxis in practice: dependency syntax for multilingual machine translation. Dordrecht: Foris Publications; pp.183-206.

(1989) Hozumi Tanaka, Shun Ishizaki, Akira Uehara, & Hiroshi Uchida: Research and development of cooperation project on a machine translation system for Japan and its neighboring countries. MT Summit II, August 16-18, 1989, Munich, Germany [Frankfurt a.M.: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentations e.V.]; pp. 146-151 [PDF, 95KB]

(1988) Kiyoshi Kogure, Hitoshi Iida, Kei Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki Maeda, Masako Kume, & Susumu Kato: A method of analyzing Japanese speech act types. Second International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, June 12-14, 1988, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, [USA]; 10pp. [PDF, 197KB]

(1988) Izuru Nogaito & Hitoshi Iida: Noun phrase identification in dialogue and its application. Second International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, June 12-14, 1988, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, [USA]; 11pp. [PDF, 138KB]

(1988) Masaru Tomita, Marion Kee, Hiroaki Saito, Teruko Mitamura, & Hideto Tomabechi: Towards a speech-to-speech translation system. Interface: Journal of Applied Linguistics 3.1 (1988); pp. 57-77. [PDF, 150 KB]

(1987) Tamami Kusuda: Japanese Technical Literature Act and machine translation. Washington, D..C.: US Department of Commerce, [1987]; 7pp. [PDF]

(1986) Masahiro Abe, Yoshimitsu Ooshima, Katsuhiko Yuura, & Nobuyuki Takeichi: A kana-kanji translation system for non-segmented input sentences based on syntactic and semantic analysis. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 280-285. [PDF, 556KB]

(1986) Jun-ichi Tsujii: Future directions of machine translation. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 655-668. [PDF, 1436KB]

(1982) Ian T.M.Gow: Terminology in scientific and technical Japanese: problems and prospects. Term banks for tomorrow’s world: Translating and the Computer 4. Proceedings of a conference… 11-12 November 1982, London Press Centre, ed. Barbara Snell. (London: Aslib, 1983); pp.145-150. [PDF, 21KB]

(1982) Makoto Nagao & Jun-ichi Nakamura: A parser which learns the application order of rewriting rules. Coling 82: proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Prague, July 5-10, 1982; edited by Ján Horecký. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982 (North-Holland Linguistics Series 47); pp. 253-258. [PDF, 362KB]

(1982) Hirosato Nomura: Terminology banks and dictionaries in Japan and their computer processing. Term banks for tomorrow’s world: Translating and the Computer 4. Proceedings of a conference… 11-12 November 1982, London Press Centre, ed. Barbara Snell. (London: Aslib, 1983); pp.72-79. [PDF, 58KB]

(1980) Hiroshi Makino & Makato Kizawa: An automatic translation system of non-segmented kana sentences into kanji-kana sentences. Coling 80: proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Sept.30 – Oct.4, 1980, Tokyo; pp. 430-436. [PDF, 694KB]

(1980) M.Nagao, J.Tsujii, Y.Ueda & M.Takiyama: An attempt to computerize dictionary data bases. Coling 80: proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Sept.30 – Oct.4, 1980, Tokyo; pp. 534-542. [PDF, 760KB]

 (1980) Makoto Nagao & Jun-ichi Tsujii: Some topics of language processing for machine translation. International Forum on Information and Documentation  5 (2), 1980; 32-37. [PDF, 135KB]

(1976) Makoto Nagao & Jun-Ichi Tsujii: Analysis of Japanese sentences by using semantic and contextual information. American Journal of Computational Linguistics, microfiche 41; 75pp. [PDF, 3775KB]

Japanese to English

(1989) Tatsuo Ashizaki: Outline of the JICST machine translation system. MT Summit II, August 16-18, 1989, Munich, Germany [Frankfurt a.M.: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentations e.V.]; pp. 44-49 [PDF, 91KB]

(1989) Hiroyuki Kaji: Language control for effective utilization of HICATS/JE. MT Summit II, August 16-18, 1989, Munich, Germany [Frankfurt a.M.: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentations e.V.]; pp. 72-77 [PDF, 91KB]

(1989) Hiroaki Kitano, Hideto Tomabechi, & Lori Levin: Ambiguity resolution in the DmTrans Plus. Fourth conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 10-12 April 1989, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, England; pp. 72-79. [PDF, 739KB]

(1989) Masako Kume, Gayle K.Sato, & Kei Yoshimoto: A descriptive framework for translating speaker’s meaning – towards a dialogue translation systems between Japanese and English.  Fourth conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 10-12 April 1989, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, England; pp. 264-271. [PDF, 658KB]

(1989) Tamami Kusuda: United States of America. In section on Political strategies in machine translation, in: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), p. 177 [PDF, 83KB]

(1989) Makoto Nagao: New directions of machine translation. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1989: “Language teaching, testing, and technology: lessons from the past with a view toward the future”, James E.Alatis, ed. (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1989); pp.378-384. [PDF, 74KB]

(1989) National Research Council: Report of a symposium on Japanese to English machine translation, held at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. on December 7, 1989. (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990.) xiii, 36pp. [PDF, 239KB]

(1989) Sergei Nirenburg: KBMT-89: a knowledge-based MT project at Carnegie-Mellon University. MT Summit II, August 16-18, 1989, Munich, Germany [Frankfurt a.M.: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentations e.V.]; pp. 106-112 [PDF, 154KB]

(1989) Sergei Nirenburg: New developments in knowledge-based machine translation. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1989: “Language teaching, testing, and technology: lessons from the past with a view toward the future”, James E.Alatis, ed. (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1989); pp. 344-357. [PDF, 139KB]

(1989) Tadaaki Oshio: Applied testing of HICATS/JE for Japanese patent abstracts.  In: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 140-144 [PDF, 151KB]

(1989) Norihiko Saeki: Machine translation system at Mazda. In: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 136-139 [PDF, 155KB]

(1989) Shigeru Sato: Practical experience in the application of MT systems. [Contribution to panel].MT Summit II, August 16-18, 1989, Munich, Germany [Frankfurt a.M.: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentations e.V.] pp. 125-127 [PDF, 52KB]

 (1989) Tsutomu Tanaka: The present situation and prospects for MT-VAN service. IFTT’89: Harmonizing human beings and computers in translation. International Forum for Translation Technology, April 26-28, 1989, Oiso Prince Hotel. (Japan Electronic Industry Development Association.); pp.38-44. [PDF, 35KB]

 (1989) Hiroshi Uchida: Controlled language. IFTT’89: Harmonizing human beings and computers in translation. International Forum for Translation Technology, April 26-28, 1989, Oiso Prince Hotel. (Japan Electronic Industry Development Association.); pp.52-54. [PDF, 31KB]

(1989) Hiroshi Uchida & Takahiro Kakizaki: Electronic dictionary project. In: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 83-86. [PDF, 156KB] 

(1989) Hiroshi Uchida: ATLAS II: a machine translation system using conceptual structure as an interlingua. In: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 93-100 [PDF, 177KB] [Rewritten version of paper given at MT Summit: Machine Translation Summit, Hakone, Japan, September 1987]

 (1989) Noriyuki Yamasaki: Translation assistance functions (pre-editing and post-editing). IFTT’89: Harmonizing human beings and computers in translation. International Forum for Translation Technology, April 26-28, 1989, Oiso Prince Hotel. (Japan Electronic Industry Development Association.); pp.60-62. [PDF, 39KB]

(1989) Rémi Zajac: A transfer model using a typed feature structure rewriting system with inheritance. 27th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 26-29 June 1989, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; pp.1-6. [PDF, 486KB]

  (1989) Beyond Fujitsu. Language Technology/Electric Word 14, July-August 1989; p.27. [PDF]

 (1988) Shin-ya Amano, Hiroyasu Nogami, & Seiji Miike: A step toward telecommunication with a machine interpreter. Second International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, June 12-14, 1988, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, [USA]; 10pp. [PDF, 119KB]

(1988) Hiroyuki Kaji: An efficient execution method for rule-based machine translation. Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 22-27 August 1988, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; vol.2, pp.824-829. [PDF, 601KB]

(1988) Michiko Kosaka, Virginia Teller, & Ralph Grishman: A sublanguage approach to Japanese-English machine translation. In: D.Maxwell, K.Schubert, & T.Witkam (eds.) New directions in machine translation. Conference proceedings, Budapest 18-19 August, 1988 (Dordrecht: Foris, 1988); pp.109-121. [note]

(1988) Seiji Miike, Koichi Hasebe, Harold Somers, & Shin-ya Amano: Experiences with an on-line translating dialogue system. 26th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 7-10 June 1988, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA; pp.155-162. [PDF, 647KB]

(1988) Fujio Nishida, Shinobu Takamatsu, Tadaaki Tani, & Tsunehisa Doi: Feedback of correcting information in postediting to a machine translation system. Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 22-27 August 1988, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; vol.2, pp.476-481. [PDF, 691KB]

(1988) Eiichiro Sumita & Yutaka Tsutsumi: A translation aid system using flexible text retrieval based on syntax-matching. Second International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, June 12-14, 1988, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, [USA]; 14pp. [PDF, 219KB]

(1988) Virginia Teller, Michiko Kosaka, & Ralph Grishman: A comparative study of Japanese and English sublanguage patterns. Second International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, June 12-14, 1988, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, [USA]; 12pp. [PDF, 157KB]

(1988) Jun-ichi Tsujii & Makoto Nagao: Dialogue translation vs. text translation – interpretation based approach. Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 22-27 August 1988, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; vol.2, pp.688-693. [PDF, 483KB]

(1988) Mary McGee Wood & Brian J.Chandler: Machine translation for monolinguals. Coling Budapest: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, 22-27 August 1988, John von Neumann Society for Computing Sciences, Budapest, Hungary; vol.2, pp.760-763. [PDF, 427KB]

 (1988) Using MT for Japanese information: Machine translation of on-line searches on Japanese databases, by Jon Sigurdson and Roger Greatrex (University of Lind, 1987). Language Monthly 55, April 1988; p.20. [PDF, 39KB]

(1987) Hiroyuki Kaji: HICATS/JE: a Japanese-to-English machine translation system based on semantics.  MT Summit: Machine Translation Summit.  Manuscripts & Program, September 17-19, 1987, Hakone Prince Hotel, Japan; pp. 55-60 [PDF, 122KB] [Reprint in: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 101-106]

(1987) Naohiro Kakizaki: Research and development of an electronic dictionary: current status and future plan.  MT Summit: Machine Translation Summit.  Manuscripts & Program, September 17-19, 1987, Hakone Prince Hotel, Japan; pp. 61-64 [PDF, 145KB]

(1987) F. Knowles, G. Jelinek & M. McGee Wood: The Alvey Japanese and English machine translation project.  MT Summit: Machine Translation Summit.  Manuscripts & Program, September 17-19, 1987, Hakone Prince Hotel, Japan; pp. 73-78 [PDF, 101KB] [Reprint as ‘Alvey project’ in: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 45-49]

(1987) Akira Kubota: The current status and future of machine translation research in Japan. [Presentation at MT Summit conference, Hakone, Japan, September 1987]; 8pp. [PDF, 121KB]

(1987) Tamami Kusuda: Japanese Technical Literature Act and machine translation. Washington, D..C.: US Department of Commerce, [1987]; 7pp. [PDF]

(1987) Kazunori Muraki: PIVOT: two-phase machine translation system.  MT Summit: Machine Translation Summit.  Manuscripts & Program, September 17-19, 1987, Hakone Prince Hotel, Japan; pp. 81-83 [PDF, 99KB] [Reprinted in: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 113-115]

(1987) Makoto Nagao: Role of structural transformation in a machine translation system.  In: Sergei Nirenburg (ed.) Machine translation: theoretical and methodological issues (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); pp.262-277.

(1987) Tadaaki Oshio: Applied testing of HICATS/JE for Japanese patent abstracts.  MT Summit: Machine Translation Summit.  Manuscripts & Program, September 17-19, 1987, Hakone Prince Hotel, Japan; pp. 87-88 [PDF, 107KB] [Expanded version in: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 140-144]

(1987) Norihiko Saeki: Machine translation system at Mazda.  MT Summit: Machine Translation Summit.  Manuscripts & Program, September 17-19, 1987, Hakone Prince Hotel, Japan; p. 104 [PDF, 76KB] [Expanded version in: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 136-139]

(1987) Masashi Sakamoto & Tsutomu Shiino: Japanese-English machine translation system “PENSEE”. Oki Technical Review 125 vol.53, April 1987; pp.9-15. [PDF, 228KB]

(1987) Jun-ichi Tsujii: The current stage of the Mu-project.  MT Summit: Machine Translation Summit.  Manuscripts & Program, September 17-19, 1987, Hakone Prince Hotel, Japan; pp. 122-127 [PDF, 119KB] [Reprint in: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 66-71]

(1987) Hiroshi Uchida: ATLAS: Fujitsu machine translation system.  MT Summit: Machine Translation Summit.  Manuscripts & Program, September 17-19, 1987, Hakone Prince Hotel, Japan; pp. 129-134 [PDF, 94KB] [Revised version in: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 93-100]

(1987) Rika Yoshii: JETR: a robust machine translation system. 25th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 6-9 July 1987, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA; pp.25-31. [PDF, 542KB]

  (1987) Word processor does Japanese to English translation. Language Technology 2, July-August 1987; p.5. [PDF, 96KB]

  (1986) Eriko Akazawa: Systran Japanese systems. (World Systran Conference, 11-14 February 1986; Commisssion des Communautés Européennes, Luxembourg). Terminologie et Traduction, 1, 1986; pp.78-89. [PDF, 76KB]

(1986) Koichiro Ishihara, Tadashi Hirose, Atsushi Okajima, & Hiroyuki Kaji: Hitachi’s research and development in knowledge engineering. [Presented at AICA, October 1986]; 17pp. [PDF, 243KB]

(1986) Ikuo Kudo & Hirosato Nomura: Lexical-functional transfer: a transfer framework in a machine translation system based on LFG. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 112-114. [PDF, 342KB]

(1986) Hiroshi Kushima & Hiroshi Uchida: Fujitsu’s machine translation systems. Japan Computer Quarterly 64 (1986); pp.19-23. [PDF, 112KB]

(1986) Makoto Nagao, Jun-ichi Tsujii, & Jun-ichi Nakamura: Machine translation from Japanese into English. Proceedings of the IEEE 74 (7), July 1986; pp.993-1012. [PDF, 669KB]

(1986) Makoto Nagao & Jun-ichi Tsujii: The transfer phase of the Mu machine translation system. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 97-103. [PDF, 560KB}

(1986) Jun-ichi Nakamura, Jun-ichi Tsujii, & Makoto Nagao: Solutions for problems of MT parser: methods used in Mu-machine translation project. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 133-135. [PDF, 293KB]

(1986) Yoshihiko Nitta: Idiosyncratic gap: a tough problem to structure-bound machine translation. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 107-111. [PDF, 476KB]

(1986) Yoshihiko Nitta: Machine translation: a problem of understanding. Japan Computer Quarterly 64 (1986); pp.36-54. [PDF, 365KB]

(1986) Hirosato Nomura, Shozo Naito, Yasuhiro Katagiri, & Akira Shimazu: Translation by understanding: a machine translation system LUTE. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 621-626. [PDF, 711KB]

(1986) Guyonne Proudlock: Session 4: summary of the discussion. Translating and the Computer 8: a profession on the move, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 13-14 November 1986, CBI Conference Centre, Centre Point, London (London: Aslib, 1987); pp.160-161. [PDF, 11KB]

(1986) Yoshiyuki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Ishikawa, & Masyuki Satoh: Concept and structure of semantic markers for machine translation in Mu project. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 13-19. [PDF, 642KB]

(1986) Yoshiyuki Sakamoto, Taeko Ariga, & Atsushi Washio: Unified operation control system for Mu machine translation. International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.114-128. [PDF, 172KB]

(1986) Hiroshi Uchida: Fujitsu machine translation system: ATLAS. Future Generations Computer Systems 2 (1986); pp. 95-100. [PDF,  184KB]

(1986) Peter J.Whitelock: Japanese machine translation in Japan and the rest of the world.  Translating and the Computer 8: a profession on the move, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 13-14 November 1986, CBI Conference Centre, Centre Point, London (London: Aslib, 1987); pp.147-159. [PDF, 72KB]

(1986) Rika Yoshii: A robust machine translation system. SPIE vol.635 Applications of Artificial Intelligence II (1986); pp.455-463. [PDF,422KB]

(1985) Kazunori Muraki, Shunji Ichiyama, & Yasutomo Fukumochi: Augmented dependency grammar: a simple interface between the grammar rule and the knowledge.  Second conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 27-29 March 1985, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; pp. 198-204. [PDF, 450KB]

(1985) Makoto Nagao: Structural transformation in the generation stage of Mu Japanese to English machine translation system.  Proceedings of the Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, Colgate University, Hamilton, New York, August 14-16, 1985 [TMI-1985]; pp. 200-223. [PDF, 332KB]

(1985) Makoto Nagao, Jun-ichi Tsujii, & Jun-ichi Nakamura: The Japanese government project for machine translation system.  Computational Linguistics 11 (2-3), pp. 91-110 [PDF, 1499KB] [Reprinted in: Jonathan Slocum (ed.) Machine translation systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988; pp. 141-186.]

 (1985) Jun-ichi Nakamura, Jun-ichi Tsujii & Makoto Nagao: Grammar writing system (GRADE) of Mu-machine translation project and its characteristics. Journal of Information Processing vol. 8, no.2, October 1985; pp.93-100. [PDF, 355KB]

(1985) Shozo Naito, Akira Shimazu, & Hirosato Nomura: Classification of modality function and its application to Japanese language analysis. 23rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the conference, 8-12 July 1985, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA; pp.27-34. [PDF, 690KB]

(1985) Jun-ichi Nakamura, Jun-ichi Tsujii & Makoto Nagao: Grammar writing system (GRADE) of Mu-machine translation project and its characteristics. Journal of Information Processing vol. 8, no.2, October 1985; pp.93-100. [PDF, 355KB]

(1985) Toyoaki Nishida & Shuji Doshita: Machine translation: Japanese perspectives. Translating and the Computer 7, ed. Catriona Picken. Proceedings of a conference… 14-15 November 1985, CBI Conference Centre, London (London: Aslib, 1986); pp.152-174. [PDF, 98KB]

(1985) Hiroshi Uchida, Tatsuya Hayashi, & Hiroshi Kushima: ATLAS: automatic translation system. Fujitsu Science and Technology Journal 21 (3), July 1985; pp.317-329. [PDF, 405KB]

(1984) J.Jelinek & J.Hawgood: Automatic integrated dictionary systems. International Conference on Methodology and Techniques of Machine Translation: processing from words to language… Cranfield, 13-15 February 1984, Natural Language Translation Specialist Group of the British Computer Society; 20pp. [PDF, 155KB] [Printed in: Ian D.K.Kelly (ed.) Progress in machine translation: natural language and personal computers (Wilmslow, UK: Sigma Press, 1989); pp.171-190.]

(1984) Makoto Nagao: A framework of a mechanical translation between Japanese and English by analogy principle, Artificial and human intelligence: edited review papers presented at the international NATO Symposium, October 1981, Lyons, France; ed. A. Elithorn and R. Banerji. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1984; pp. 173-180. [PDF, 260KB]

(1984) Makoto Nagao, Toyoaki Nishida & Jun-ichi Tsujii: Dealing with incompleteness of linguistic knowledge in language translation – transfer and generation stage of Mu machine translation project. Coling84: 10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics & 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2-6 July 1984, Stanford University, California. Proceedings; pp.420-427. [PDF, 473KB]

(1984) Makoto Nagao: Outline of the machine translation projects of the Japanese government. International Forum on Information and Documentation, 1984, vol. 9 (2); 12-17. [PDF, 61KB]

(1984) Jun-ichi Nakamura, Jun-ichi Tsujii, & Makoto Nagao: Grammar writing system (GRADE) of Mu-machine translation project and its characteristics. Coling84: 10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics & 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2-6 July 1984, Stanford University, California. Proceedings; pp.338-343. [PDF, 403KB]

(1984) Yoshihiko Nitta, Atsushi Okajima, Hiroyuki Kaji, Youichi Hidano, & Koichiro Ishihara: A proper treatment of syntax and semantics in machine translation. Coling84: 10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics & 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2-6 July 1984, Stanford University, California. Proceedings; pp.159-166. [PDF, 556KB]

(1984) Yoshiyuki Sakamoto, Masayuki Satoh, & Tetsuya Ishikawa: Lexicon features for Japanese syntactic analysis in Mu-project-JE. Coling84: 10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics & 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2-6 July 1984, Stanford University, California. Proceedings; pp.42-47. [PDF, 461KB]

(1984) Jun-ichi Tsujii, Jun-ichi Nakamura, & Makoto Nagao: Analysis grammar of Japanese in the Mu-project – a procedural approach to analysis grammar. Coling84: 10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics & 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2-6 July 1984, Stanford University, California. Proceedings; pp.267-274. [PDF, 535KB]

(1983) Jun Ibuki, Masako Kume, Makato Nagao & Jun-ichi Tsujii: Japanese-to-English title translation system, TITRAN – its outline and the handling of special expressions in titles. Journal of Information Processing vol. 6, no.4, February 1983; pp.231-238. [PDF, 359KB]

(1982) Fujio Nishida & Shinobu Takamatsu: Japanese-English translation through internal expressions. Coling 82: proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Prague, July 5-10, 1982; edited by Ján Horecký. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982 (North-Holland Linguistics Series 47); pp. 271-276. [PDF, 328KB]

(1982) Susumu Sawai, Hiromichi Fukushima, Masakatsu Sugimoto, & Naoya Ukai: Knowledge representation and machine translation. Coling 82: proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Prague, July 5-10, 1982; edited by Ján Horecký. Amsterdam, New York, Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1982 (North-Holland Linguistics Series 47); pp. 351-354. [PDF, 304KB]

 (1982) Susumu Sawai, Masakatsu Sugimoto, & Naoya Ukai: Knowledge representation and machine translation. Fujitsu Science and Technology Journal 18 (1), March 1982; pp.117-132. [PDF, 195KB]

(1980) M.Nagao, J.Tsujii, K.Mitamura, H.Hirakawa, & M.Kume: A machine translation from Japanese into English – another perspective of MT systems. Coling 80: proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Sept.30 – Oct.4, 1980, Tokyo; pp. 414-423. [PDF, 926KB]

(1980) Hiroshi Uchida & Kenji Sugiyama: A machine translation system from Japanese into English based on conceptual structure. Coling 80: proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Sept.30 – Oct.4, 1980, Tokyo; pp. 455-462. [PDF, 509KB]

Japanese to German

 (1989) Toshiba MT: sushi and sauerkraut. Electric Word 15, September-October 1989; pp.15-16. [PDF, 147KB]

(1988) Dietmar Rösner: The SEMSYN generation system: ingredients, applications, prospects. Second conference on Applied Natural Language Processing [of] Association for Computational Linguistics. Proceedings of the conference, 9-12 February 1988, Austin-Marriott at the Capitol, Austin, Texas, USA;  pp. 25-32. [PDF, 538KB]

(1988) Dietmar Rösner: The SEMSYN generation system: ingredients, applications, prospects.  Interface: Journal of Applied Linguistics 3.1 (1988); pp. 33-44. [PDF, 49KB]

(1986) Martin Emele, Walter Kehl, & Dietmar Rösner: Generating natural language from semantic representations – an AI approach to a Japanese/German machine translation project.. International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.67-78. [PDF, 87KB]

(1986) K.Hanakata, A.Lesniewski, & S.Yokoyama: Semantic based generation of Japanese German translation system. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 560-562. [PDF, 332KB]

(1986) Dietmar Rösner: When Mariko talks to Siegfried: experiences from a Japanese/German machine translation project. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 652-654. [PDF, 262KB]

(1984) J.Laubsch, D.Roesner, K.Hanakata, & A.Lesniewski: Language generation from conceptual structure: synthesis of German in a Japanese/German MT project. Coling84: 10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics & 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 2-6 July 1984, Stanford University, California. Proceedings; pp.491-494. [PDF, 312KB]

Japanese to Korean

(1988) Hee Sung Chung: A principle-based Korean/Japanese machine translation system: NARA. Second International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, June 12-14, 1988, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, [USA]; 11pp. [PDF, 161KB]

(1986) Hee Sung Chung & Tosiyasu L. Kunji: NARA: a two-way simultaneous interpretation system between Korean and Japanese – a methodological study. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 325-328. [PDF, 395KB]

Japanese to Russian

(1980) Raimond G.Piotrovsky: Machine translation in the research group on Speech Statistics: theory, results and outlook. International Forum on Information and Documentation  5 (2), 1980; 9-11. [PDF, 43KB]

(1980) Z.M.Shalyapina: Problems of formal representation of text structure from the point of view of automatic translation. Coling 80: proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Sept.30 – Oct.4, 1980, Tokyo; pp. 174-182. [PDF, 1076KB]

Korean

(1989) Lee Kisik & Park Changho: Korea. In section on Political strategies in machine translation, in: Makoto Nagao (ed.) Machine translation summit (Tokyo: Ohmsha, 1989), pp. 172-174 [PDF, 104KB]

Korean to English

(1985) J.M.Choi, M.S.Song, K.J.Jeong, H.C.Kwon, S.T.Han, & Y.T.Kim: A Prolog-based Korean-English machine translation system and its efficient method of dictionary management. Logic Programming ’85: proceedings of the conference, Tokyo 1985; pp.236-245. [PDF, 206KB]

Korean to Japanese

(1988) Hee Sung Chung: A principle-based Korean/Japanese machine translation system: NARA. Second International Conference on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Machine Translation of Natural Languages, June 12-14, 1988, Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Machine Translation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, [USA]; 11pp. [PDF, 161KB]

(1986) Hee Sung Chung & Tosiyasu L. Kunji: NARA: a two-way simultaneous interpretation system between Korean and Japanese – a methodological study. Coling ’86: 11th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, August 25th to 29th, 1986, University of Bonn, [Germany]. Proceedings; pp. 325-328. [PDF, 395KB]

(1986) Tae Wan Kim, Jin Tae Lee, Chang Ho Park, & Ki Sik Lee: Machine translation of the Ural-Altaic as an agglutinative language - On the Korean to Japanese translation. International Conference on the State of the Art in Machine Translation in America, Asia and Europe. Proceedings of IAI-MT86, 20-22 August 1986, Bürgerhaus, Dudweiler; pp.148-157. [PDF, 154KB]

Latin to English

(1986) M.Masterman, R.M.Needham, K.Sparck Jones, & B.Mayoh: Agricola incurvo terram dimovit aratro (Virgil “Georgic”) First stage translation into English with the aid of Roget’s Thesaurus. Report (ML84) ML93, November 1957. Reprinted with a new introduction by K.Sparck Jones. Cambridge: Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, April 1986; 14pp. [PDF, 58KB]